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Copyright, iqoj, by ArtJitt? Baker 
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The purpose of Esperanto is to be a second 
language for those persons who have relations with 
people whose native languages they do not know. 
This great need of humanity Esperanto supplies. 
By a few weeks of study, even without the aid of 
a teacher, one can qualify himself for conversation 
and correspondence with all the other Esperantists 
of the world, whatever their nationality. Their 
number is increasing by hundreds of thousands 
each year. These facts being established beyond 
doubt, it would be conferring an undeserved dignity 
upon those who oppose the language to reply to 
their arguments. "It has an artificial sound" — 
so has the voice in the telephone. "It is not art- 
istic" — neither is a steam locomotive. The useful- 
ness of Esperanto is so thoroughly established that 
the discussion of its artistic merits may well be 
dismissed, with perhaps the observation that the 
language is frequently mistaken by the uninitiated 
for Italian or Spanish, popularly supposed to be 
the most musical of languages. 

The aim of this book is to provide, in one vol- 
ume, the means of acquiring a thorough, practical 
knowledge of Esperanto. As suggested by its 
title, the contents are especially adapted to the 

American student, due regard being paid to the 
Americanisms of our language. 

Sources of Authority 

This volume is based upon the Ekzercaro, by 
Dr. Zamenhof. All the exercises are taken from 
it and are therefore absolutely authoritative. The 
notes and translations, with the discussion of the 
grammar, while containing much original work, 
are also indebted to the following sources : The 
Standard Course of Esperanto, by George W. Bul- 
len, F. B. E. A.; Esperanta Sintakso, by Sro. Paul 
Fruictier ; Grammar and Commentary, by Major- 
General George Cox. The Esperanto-English 
vocabulary is compiled from the second edition of 
the Esperanto- English Dictionary, by A. Motteau, 
and Worterbuch Esperanto-Deutsch, by Hermann 
Jurgensen, the latter volume being preferred where 
the two are not in concord. Supplementing these, 
the English- Esperanto Dictionary, by J. C. O'Con- 
nor and C. F. Hayes, is drawn upon for the matter 
contained in the English-Esperanto vocabulary. 

How to Study 

Read carefully the first part of the book, pages 
7 to 76 inclusive. It is by no means desirable to 
attempt to assimilate everything set forth in these 
pages at once, but the student who has forgotten 
much of English grammar will find his memory 
refreshed, and the person who has considered him- 

self a good grammarian will find that Esperanto 
may widen his knowledge of the subject. 

Upon finishing this matter, return to page 7, 
and commit to memory the sounds of the Esperanto 
letters described on this and the four succeeding 
pages. Then take up, in their order, the exercises. 
Having finished these and memorized all the words 
contained in them, you will be able to read readily 
any ordinary correspondence and literature in the 
language. This book being a modest compendium 
of Esperanto material, it has seemed necessary to 
include in the Esperanto-English vocabulary many 
unusual words and technical terms, and the wise 
student will not attempt to burden his memory 
with such as are outside his own needs and uses. 

You may put your knowledge of Esperanto to 
immediate practical use in reading, or in correspon- 
dence for any purpose whatever, with persons in 
any part of the world. Addresses may be obtained 
on request (with stamp), from Amerika Esperantisto, 


Alphabet 7 

Rules of the Grammar - - - - 12 

The Article ----- - 19 

The Substantive 20 

The Adjective 24 

Pronouns 26 

The Verb 28 

The Participle 37 

The Adverb 41 

The Preposition 47 

The Conjunction ----- 59 

The Interjection - - - - - 61 

The Numerals 63 

Prefixes and Suffixes - - - 65 

Correlative Words - - . - - - 70 

Capitals and Punctuation - - - - 74 

Order of Words - 75 

Foreign Names - 76 

Exercises - - 77 

Correspondence - - - - 180 

La Esperantismo - - 184 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 3 

English-Esperanto Vocabulary - 77 



The alphabet consists of twenty-eight letters, 
each representing one sound only: 

Aa, Bb, Cc, ĈĈ, Dd, Ee, Ff, Gg, Ĝĝ, Hh, Hn, 
Ii, Jj, ĴĴ, Kk, LI, Mm, Nn, Oo, Pp, Rr, Ss,SŜ, 
Tt, Uu, Ŭŭ, Vv, Zz. 

The Names of the Letters A, E, I, O, U 

(vowels) are the sounds, and those of the conson- 
ants are formed by adding the Esperanto noun 
ending : b bo, c tso, Ĉ cho, d do, ffo, g go, ĝ jo, 
h ho, ĥ hho, j yo, Ĵ zho, k ko, 1 lo, m mo, n no, p po, 
T ro, S so, Ŝ sho, t toe, ŭ wo, v vo, z zo. 


The sound given each letter is the same as in 
English, with the following exceptions: 
A is like a in father. 
C is like ts in hats. 
Ĉ is like ch in chop. 
E is like a in fate (but not so long). 
G is like g in go. 
G is like / in joy, or g in George. 
H is like ch in loch (See explanation). 
I is like ee in see. 

8 The American Esperanto Book 

J is like y in yet. 
J is like z in seizure. 
O is like o in roll. 
S is like s in .$■<?. 
S is like sh in ^<?o/. 
U is like oo in soon. 
U is like a/ in how. 
Z is like z in 20«^. 

It will be observed that the letters bearing the supersign A 
are pronounced ch, gh, hh, jh, sh. Printers unable to pro- 
cure the special type may substitute these forms. 

The Esperanto E is a matter of difficulty to 
writers of text-books, as there is no English vowel 
sound which exactly represents it. Authorities 
agree that it is approximately half-way between our 
e in men and a in fate. Inasmuch as ej exactly 
duplicates the English a in fate, it is considered 
best to advise the student to pronounce e like our 
long a, but to cut it short. Still, if pronounced 
long, it cannot possibly be misunderstood except 
in two or three words; e. g. veno, vejno. 

Trill the R. — While not listed as an exception 
r is pronounced with the trill usually regarded as 
an affectation in America, but used by most of 
Europeans. Copy the rrroi your German, French 
or Bohemian friends. 

O in Esperanto is not exactly as in English. 
Beginners should pronounce it as in vote, roll, etc., 
shortening the sound as much as possible. 

The American Esperanto Book 9 

J has the sound of s as in pleasure, measure, 
leisure, treasure, or z in seizure, azure. 

J is classed as a consonant, and the sound is 
always blended with the preceding vowel in forming 
the plurals, oj, ojn, aj, ajn, uj, ujn, and its addition 
to the vowel ending of a word never changes the 
position of the accent : Plumo, ploo-mo; plumoj, 
ploo-moy; plumojn, ploo f -moyn; granda, grahri -dah; 
grandaj, grahri -dai (ai as in aisle or as i in file); 
grandajn, grahri -dine; tiu, tee'-oo; tiuj, tee-ooy; 
tiujn, tee-ooyn; plej, play. 

OJ, Pronounced "oy," is nor an inconsistency, 
as many superficial students suppose, nor is aj 
when given the sound of long /. If you doubt this, 
pronounce oh yes and ah yes very quickly and you 
will observe that perfect diphthongs result. 

Ŭ is a consonant, and is used after a and e to 
form the diphthongs aŭ and eŭ. The sound of the 
letter is like w in English, and sometimes puzzles 
beginners, who think that they have discovered an 
exception to the rule that Esperanto letters have 
each one invariable sound. 

AU has the sound of ow in how, cow, plow. 

EU has a sound which may be approximated by 
a quick pronunciation of ehoo or ayoo, eliminating 
most of the 00 vowel sound. A still better practice 

10 The American Esperanto Book 

combination is ehw as in pronouncing very quickly 
the words eh Willie. This combination never makes 
two syllables: eŭropano is pronounced ehw-ro-pa- 
no, not eh-oo-ro-pa-no. 

H presents some difficulty to English-speaking 
people. It is a strong gutteral aspirate, produced 
from a position lower in the throat than any English 
sound. It is used in several European languages, 
but if the student has not heard it he may approxi- 
mate it by pronouncing it hH. Fortunately, the 
letter is seldom used. 

CombinaulJr uch as kv, kn, gv, ŝv, ŝt, ŝm, 
etc., are also unfamiliar to one who speaks only 
English, but present little difficulty, although one 
must remember that no letters are ever silent. The 
combination sc is no more difficult than many in our 
native language, except that we must not slur it, 
but bring out each detail: sts. 

Especial attention is directed to two other 
combinations: In pronouncing lingvo, and almost 
every word in which n is followed by g, the inclin- 
ation of the beginner is to sound the ng as in Eng- 
lish. Such words are leen-gvo, feen-gro, etc. The 
kz in ek-zi-li and similar words is pronounced as 
written, and should not be given the sound of gz 
as found in exempt, example, etc. 

Accent. — The tonic or principal accent is on 

The American Esperanto Book II 

the syllable next to the last, no matter now many 
syllables the word may contain; ^-mo; ĉe~va-lo; 
ak-ci-^/-tro; ad-min-is-tran-to-ro. The secondary 
accents are placed where euphony, or good sound, 
demands, with due respect to derivation. The 
latter consideration is important in compounding 
words. For example: juvelo, a jewel; kesto, ease; 
juvelkesto would require the secondary accent on 
the second syllable, or at least this should sound 
as strongly as the first. 

A syllable is necessary for every vowel, no 
matter how many come together; there are no 
double vowels in Esperanto: traire, tra-i-re\ boao, 
bo-a-o) metiisto, me-ti-ist-o\ treege, tre-eg-e\ zool- 
ogio, zo-o-lo-gi-o. 

12 The American Es}era?ito Book 


[The paragraphs in Esperanto are the Sixteen Rules given 
by Zamenhof , a part of the Fundament o de Esperanto. The 
accompanying English paragraphs are a translation] . 

The Article. — There is no indefinite article; 
there is only a definite article, la, alike for all sexes, 
cases and numbers. 

Remark. — The use of the article is the same 
as in other languages. Those persons to whom 
the use of the article presents a difficulty may at 
first not use it at all. 

Artikolo nedifinita ne ekzistas; ekzistas nur 
artikolo difinita (/#), egala por Ĉiuj seksoj, 
kazoj kaj nombroj. 

Rimarko. — La uzado de la artikolo estas tia 
sama kiel en la aliaj lingvoj. La personoj, por 
kiuj la uzado de la artikolo prezentas malfacil- 
aĵojn, povas en la unua tempo tute ne ĝin uzi. 


The Substantive. — Substantives have the end- 
ing o. For the formation of the plural we add the 
ending j. There are only two cases — nominative 
and accusative 11 ; the latter is obtained from the 

Accusative, in English grammar, is termed objective. 

The American Esperanto Book 13 

nominative by the addition of the termination n. 
The other cases are expressed by the help of prep- 
ositions (the genitive b by de, the dative by al, the 
ablative by per or other prepositions according to 
the meaning). 

La substantivoj havas la finiĝon 0, Por la 
formado de la multenombro oni aldonas la fin- 
iĝon j\ Kazoj ekzistas nur du: nominativo kaj 
akuzativo; la lasta estas ricevata el la nomina- 
tivo per la aldono de la finiĝo n. La ceteraj 
kazoj estas esprimataj per helpo de prepozicioj 
(la genitivo per de, la dativo per a/, la ablativo 
per per aŭ aliaj prepozicioj laŭ la senco). 


The Adjective. — The adjective ends in a. Cases 
and numbers as with the substantive. The com- 
parative is made by means of the word pli, the 
superlative by plej; with the comparative the con- 
junction ol is used. 

La adjektivo finiĝas per a, Kazoj kaj nom- 
broj kiel ĉe la substantive La komparativo 
estas farata per la vorto pit, la superlativo per 
plej) ĉe la komparativo oni uzas la konjunkcion 


The Numerals. — The cardinal numerals (they 

b In English grammar, possessive. 
c These cases do not exist in English. 

14 The American Esperanto Book 

are not declined) are: Unu, du, tri, kvar, kvin, 
ses, sep, ok, naŭ, dek, cent, mil. The tens and 
hundreds are formed by the simple joining of the 
numerals. For the signification of the ordinal 
numerals, we add the ending of the adjective ; for 
the multiples — the suffix -obi; for the fractionals — 
-on; for the collectives, -op; for the distributives — 
the word po. Besides that, substantival and ad- 
verbial numerals can be used. 

La numeraloj fundamentaj (ne estas deklin- 
aciataj) estas unu, du, tri, kvar, kvin, ses, sep, ok, 
naŭ, dek, cent, mi/. La dekoj kaj centoj estas for- 
mataj per simpla kunigo de la numeraloj. Por la 
signado de la numeraloj ordaj oni aldonas la 
finiĝon de la adjektivo; por la multoblaj — la 
sufikson -obi, por la nombronaj — -on, por la 
kolektaj — -op, por la disdividaj — la vorton po. 
Krom tio povas esti uzataj numeraloj substan- 
tivaj kaj adverbaj. 


The Pronouns. — Personal pronouns: mi, vi, 
li, ŝi, ĝi (referring to thing or animal), si, ni, vi, 
ili, oni; the possessive pronouns are formed by the 
addition of the adjective ending. Declension is as 
with the substantives. 

Pronomoj personaj: mi, vi, li, ŝi, ĝi (pri ob- 
jekto aŭ besto), si, ni, vi, ili, oni; la pronomoj 
posedaj estas formataj per la aldono de la finiĝo 

The American Esperanto Book 1 5 

adjektiva. La deklinacio estas kiel Ĉe la sub- 


The Verb. — The verb is not changed in person 
or number. Forms of the verb: the present tense 
takes the ending -as; the past tense, -is; the future 
tense, -os; the conditional mode, -us; the imperative 
mode, -u; the infinitive mode, -i. Participles (with 
an adjectival or adverbial sense): active present, 
-ant; active past, -int; active future, -ont; passive 
present, -at; passive past, -it ; passive future, -ot. 
All forms of the passive are formed by the help of 
a corresponding form of the verb esti and a passive 
participle of the required verb; the preposition with 
the passive is de. 

La verbo ne estas ŝanĝata laŭ personoj nek 
nombroj. Formoj de la verbo: la tempo estanta 
akceptas la finiĝon -as; la tempo estinta -is; la 
tempo estonta -os ; la modo kondiĉa -us ; la 
modo ordona -u; la modo sendifina #; Partici- 
poj (kun senco adjektiva aŭ adverba): aktiva 
estanta -ant ; aktiva estinta -int ; aktiva estonta 
-ont; pasiva estanta, -at; pasiva estinta, -it; 
pasiva estonta, -ot. ĉiuj formoj de la pasiva 
estas formataj per helpo de responda formo 
de la verbo esti kaj participo pasiva de la bezo- 
nata verbo; la prepozicio ĉe la pasivo estas de. 

1 6 The American Esperanto Book 


The Adverb. — Adverbs end in e; degrees of 
comparison as with the adjective. 

La adverboj finiĝas per e ; gradoj de kom- 
parado kiel ĉe la adjektivoj. 


Nominative with Prepositions. — All preposi- 
tions require the nominative. 

Ciuj prepozicioj postulas la nominativon. 


Pronunciation. — Every word is read as it is 

Ciu vorto estas legata, kiel ĝi estas skribita. 


Accent. — The accent is always on the penulti- 
mate (next to the last) syllable. 

La akcento estas Ĉiam sur la antaŭlasta 


Compound Words. — Compound words are 
formed by the simple joining of words (the princi- 
pal word stands at the end); the grammatical end- 
ings are also regarded as independent words. 

Vortoj kunmetitaj estas formataj per simpla 
kunigo de la vortoj (la ĉefa vorto staras en la 

The American Esperanto Book 17 

fino); la gramatikaj finiĝoj estas rigardataj 
ankaŭ kiel memstaraj vortoj. 


Negation. — With another negative word the 
word ne is omitted. 

ĉe alia nea vorto la vorto ne estas forlasata. 


Direction. — In order to show direction, words 
take the ending of the accusative. 

Por montri direkton, la vortoj ricevas la 
finiĝon de la akuzativo. 


The Preposition Je. — Every preposition has a 
definite and constant meaning; but if we have to 
use a preposition and the direct sense does not 
show us what special preposition we ought to take, 
then we use the preposition je, which has no inde- 
pendent meaning. Instead of the preposition je 
we can also use the accusative without a preposi- 

Ciu prepozicio havas difinitan kaj konstan- 
tan signifon; sed se ni devas uzi ian prepozicion 
kaj la rekta senco ne montras al ni, kian nome 
prepozicion ni devas preni, tiam ni uzas 
la prepozicion je, kiu memstaran signifon ne 
havas. Anstataŭ la prepozicio je oni povas 
ankaŭ uzi la akuzativon sen prepozicio. 

1 8 The American Esperanto Book 


Foreign Words. — The so-called foreign words, 
that is, those which a majority of the languages 
have taken from one source, are used in the Esper- 
anto language without change, receiving only the 
orthography of this language; but with various 
words from one root it is better to use unchanged 
only the fundamental word, and to form the rest 
from this latter according to the rules of the Esper- 
anto language. 

La tiel nomataj vortoj fremdaj, t. e., tiuj 
kiujn la plimulto de la lingvoj prenis el unu 
fonto, estas uzataj en la lingvo Esperanto sen 
ŝanĝo, ricevante nur la ortografion de tiu ĉi 
lingvo ; sed ĉe diversaj vortoj de unu radiko 
estas pli bone uzi senŝanĝe nur la vorton fun- 
damentan kaj la ceterajn formi el tiu ĉi lasta 
laŭ la reguloj de la lingvo Esperanto. 


Elision. — The final vowel of the substantive 
and the article can be omitted and replaced by an 

La fina vokalo de la substantivo kaj de la 
artikolo povas esti forlasata kaj anstataŭigata 
de apostrofo. 

The American Esperanto Book 19 


No indefinite article, such as a, is used in 
Esperanto, this being implied in the noun: hundo, 
a dog\ arbo, a tree. 

The definite article is la: la hundo, the dog\ 
la arbo, the tree. Its use is much the same as in 
English, with some very important exceptions. 
For example, when we use a word in its generic 
sense, the article is employed: The sentence, Man 
is a slave y we translate La homo estas sklavo. 
La medicino estas scienco=Mea , icine is a science. 
Tiel blanka kiel la neĝo=^4ĵ white as snow. 

Instead of possessive pronouns the article i s 
used when referring to a relative of the speaker or 
person addressed, or even of a third person when 
the identity is unmistakable. La patro=JO (or 
your) father. [See Exercises 8 and 9]. 

Before numeral adjectives which denote day, 
hour, etc.: Venu je la deka \\ova=Come at ten. 
La unua de januaro=7%<? ./£/-.$•/ of January. 

The apostrophe may be substituted for the 
a of the article. In Exercise 27 Dr. Zamenhof 
adds: "but only after a preposition which ends in 
a vowel." This permission is useful chiefly in 
poetry, when necessary to eliminate a syllable. 

20 The American Esperanto Book 


A substantive (noun) is a word expressing the 
name of anything: domo, a house) birdo, a bird; 
penso, a thought) riĉeco, wealth) ago, an act. 
The sign of the substantive is the final o. When 
more than one thing is spoken of, we add the 
plural sign, j: katoj, cats) knaboj, boys) arboj, trees. 

The nominative form of the substantive is 
the regular form, either singular or plural. This 
is used in all relations except three, hereafter ex- 

Possession is indicated by the preposition de 
preceding the substantive: L»a libro de la knabo— 

The boy's book (literally, the book of the boy). 

The accusative form is used where the sub- 
stantive stands as the object of a transitive verb; 
that is, a verb which implies some action or change 
directed against the substantive: La knabo batis 
la hundon = The boy beat the dog. Here, the dog 
is the object of the action implied. Hence, we add 
the accusative sign, n, to hundo. This change is 
necessary in Esperanto because this is an inter?ia- 
tional language, to be used by many millions of 
people who put the object of an action before the 
word expressing the action. 

The American Esperanto Book 21 

After a preposition the accusative case is not 
used, except for the purpose indicated in the par- 
agraph following : 

To show direction or motion toward a given 
place, when no accompanying word indicates this, 
the accusative form is used: Li iris Bostonon= 
He went to or toward Boston. 

Accusative Without Preposition. — Accord- 
ing to Rule XIV we may omit the preposition and 
substitute the accusative form. This is frequently 
done in expressing date, measure, etc., but there 
is no set rule demanding it: Li venos lundon = 
He will come Monday. Li venos je \nndo=He 
will come on Monday. Each of these forms is cor- 
rect. Mi laboris ok horojn= I worked eight hours. 
Mi laboris dum ok horoj=/ worked during eight 
hours. It will be noted that in either English or 
Esperanto the preposition may be omitted; but in 
Esperanto the omission is indicated by a signal. 

Order of Signs. — The sign of the plural pre- 
cedes that of the accusative case: librojn, homojn. 

Elision. — The final of the noun may be omit- 
ted (Rule 16) and the apostrophe (') substituted, 
but this is usually confined to verse. Writers of 
Esperanto poetry are inclined to take the similar 
liberty with oj and ojn where no confusion as to 
meaning is to be feared. 

22 The American Esperanto Book 

We omit the preposition, usually, translating 
such forms as Dominion of Canada, City of New 
York: Regno Kanado, Urbo Nov-Jorko. The 
accusative is not used here to indicate an omission, 
because no Esperanto preposition is left out, this 
language not confessing the need of a preposition 
in these cases. So the English preposition is wiped 
out of existence. 

Adjective for Possessive. — A few students 
are confused by the use of the adjective form for 
possessive case with the pronoun and not with the 
substantive. There are, however, cases in which 
an English possessive is translated by an Esperanto 
adjective, and these require careful observation: 
Unuhora dormo=6>;z<? hour's sleep. Unuahora 
g&r Ĝo=The frst hour's watch. Close scrutiny will 
show, however, that these cannot be called an 
exception to the Esperanto rule, as they are hardly 
possessives in English, and not at all in Esperanto. 

The superiority of Esperanto as a means of 
precise expression is illustrated in the following 
sentences : Mia frato amas mian filinon pli ol 
mian fi\on=My brother loves my daughter i?iore than 
my son {more than he loves my son). Mi amas mian 
filinon pli ol mia filo=/ love my daughter more 
than my son {loves her). In the first sentence, 
filon, being accusative, must be understood as the 
object of the implied verb. In the latter, filo, being 
nominative, can be connected with the sentence 

The American Esperanto Book 23 

only as the subject of the implied verb. In English 
we must supply the phrase to express the meaning; 
in Esperanto the case of the noun expresses the 
sense beyond doubt. 

24 The American Esperanto Book 


An adjective is a word used to express some 
quality, attribute or limitation of a substantive: 
blanka domo, a white house; larĝa strato, a wide 
street; alta viro, a tall man. Blanka, larĝa and 
alta are adjectives, each expressing some quality 
of the substantive. The adjective sign is final a. 

Adjectives may be formed from almost any 
root, and attribute to the substantive the idea ex- 
pressed by the root: ligno, wood, ligna, wooden; 
danki, to thank, danka, thankful. Adjectives may 
be formed also from prepositions, adverbs, etc.; in 
fact the adjective ending may be applied to almost 
any word : en, in, ena, inner; tro, too, troa, exces- 
sive; tie, there, tiea, of that place. 

In number and case the adjective agrees with 
the substantive to which it belongs: Ruĝa pomo= 
A red apple. Ruĝaj pomoj =J?ed apples. Li ŝatas 
ruĝajn pomoj n=He likes red apples. 

A predicative adjective, that is, one preceded 
by some form of esti (if not in the word, then at 
least in the thought), is always nominative, even 
though it may refer to an accusative substantive. 
Mi trovis mian amikon malsanan=/ found my 
sick friend. Here, malsanan belongs directly to 
amikon. But if we say Mi trovis mian amikon 

The American Esperanto Book 25 

malsana==/ found my friend sick, the meaning is 
materially changed. Literally, it would read: Mi 
trovis mian amikon esti (aŭ, ke li estas) mal- 
sana= I found my friend to be (or, that he is) sick. 
[See remarks on Adjectival Participles]. 

Comparison of adjectives is effected by means 
of various words. Some of them are: 

Pli ,.ol=More than. 

Malpli ol=Zess than. 

Tiel... kiel=As as. 

Tia kia.=Such as. 

Tia sama kia.=The same as. 

Ju pli des pli = The more the more. 

Ju malpli des malpli=7/^? less the less. 

[For uses of these words see Exercise 4] . 

Degree may also be expressed by the suffixes, 
eg and et: varmeta, varma, varmega=lukewarm, 
warm, hot. 

The superlatives are expressed by plej and 
malplej: La plej gTanĜa= The largest. La mal- 
plej gran6.a= The smallest. 

Adverbial Ending. — Where the indefinite it 
is employed in English, as it is warm, it rains, 
Esperanto uses no equivalent for it; in such cases, 
or where a verb or phrase forms the subject, and all 
cases where there is neither a noun or pronoun to 
which the adjective refers, the qualifying word, 
even if adjectival in meaning, is adverbial in form: 
Estas necese— // is ?iecessary. Estas agrable= 
// is agreeable. Esti bele estas oportune=7 7 <? be 
beautiful is fortunate. 

26 The American Esperanto Book 


A pronoun is a word used to represent a noun 
or substantive. Its use lends grace and facility to 
speech, by avoiding repetitions of the real name 
for which it stands. Many of the cruder languages 
do not possess pronouns. An Indian, for example, 
uses his own name instead of the pronoun /. Es- 
peranto is especially well equipped with pronouns. 
Relative pronouns, with several other kinds, are 
listed under the head of Correlative Words, as their 
use is somewhat different from that of the personal 

The personal pronouns are : mi, I; vi, you 

(singular or plural); li, he; si, she; ĝi, it\ ni, we ; 
ili, they) si, a reflexive pronoun referring only to 
subject of proposition and always in the third per- 
son, meaning himself, herself, itself themselves; 
oni, one or they : oni diras, they say. Oni is 
always nominative. 

The possessive case of pronouns is formed 
by the addition of the adjective sign, a: mia, 
my, mine ; via, your, yours ; lia, his ; ŝia, her, hers; 
nia, our, ours ; ilia, their, theirs ; sia, one's, his, 
hers, their, etc. 

The Afnerican Esperanto Book 27 

The possessive pronoun, being an adjective 
in form, is governed by the rules of the adjective. 
It agrees in number and case with the noun which 
it qualifies. Using the English words, their book % 
the pronoun is understood to be plural; ilia libro, 
however, shows the pronoun in the singular form, 
though obviously referring to more than one per- 
son; it becomes plural in form only when the noun 
is plural — iliaj libroj. Conversely, miaj libroj 
{my books) shows the personal pronoun in the plu- 
ral form, though certainly singular in sense. The 
plural sign is merely an indication that the word 
belongs to a plural noun. 

The reflexive pronoun requires careful study 
for its correct use. It is always in the third per- 
son and can refer only to the subject of the clause 
or proposition in which it is used. Johano ren- 
kontis mian patron kaj lian amikon=/<?/ŭ« met 
my father and his (my father's) friend. Johano 
renkontis mian patron kaj sian amikon=fohn 
met my father and his John's) friend. [See Exer- 
cise 12]. 

a8 The American Esperanto Book 

A verb is a word used to express action or 
being. In English these words often vary accord- 
ingly as they express the action of one person or 
more; or the action of the speaker, the person who 
is addressed, or a third person. For example, we 
say / am, you are, he is. In Esperanto the verb 
does not change thus; we say: mi estas, vi estas, 
li estas. 

All verbs are regular. — In English, several 
hundred verbs have special forms for expressing 
past or completed action, so that to use the wrong 
form would give rise to seemingly humorous ab- 
surdities ; for example, write, wrote, written-, fight, 
foghte, fitten. The various Esperanto verbs use 
exactly the same forms, and the entire list of these 
forms in their various uses is called the conjuga- 

The indicative mode expresses action or being 
as now taking place, which has, or which will take 
place. It involves a simple, definite statement, 
as distinguished from the indefinite, conditional, 
interrogatory, etc. 

The American Esperanto Book 29 


The active voice represents the action as be- 
ing performed (present, past or future) : 

Mi skribas=/ write, am writing. 

Vi ludis= You played, were playing. 

Li laboros = £fe will work, be working. 

Mi estas skribanta=/ am writing (emphasiz- 
ing present continuity of act.) 

Vi estis ludanta= You were playing. 

Li estos laboranta=Zfe will be working. 

Mi estas skribinta=/ have written, been writ- 

Vi estis ludinta=K?# had played, been playing. 

Li estos laborinta =-#"<? will have worked, have 
been working. 

Mi estas skribonta=/ am to write, a?n about 
to write. 

Vi estis ludonta=K?w were about to play. 

Li estos laboronta^Zfe will be about to work, 


The passive voice describes the action as 
being received: 

Mi estas amata=/ am loved. 
Vi estis trompata= You were deceived, were 
being deceived. 

Li estos forlasata=Zfe will be forsaken. 

Mi estas Q.mitSL=I have been loved. 

Vi estis trompita=lW had been deceived. 

30 The American Esperanto Book 

Li estos forlasita==£fe will have been forsaken. 

Mi estas amota=/ am to be (or, about to be) 

Vi estis trompota=K?# were about to be 

Li estos forlasota ==//<? will be about to be for- 

The Present Tense. — If an action is in prog- 
ress at the time of speaking or writing, the verb 
takes the ending of the present tense. Johano 
skribas=/ohn writes. This means that John is 
now writing, but it may also mean that he writes 
generally, is a copyist. When necessary, however, 
to emphasize the fact that the action is of present 
duration and still incomplete, we use the participle 
and estas, thus: Johano estas skribanta. This 
can mean only that John is now, at the time of 
speaking, in the act of writing. 

The present tense is also used in Esperanto 
to describe an act occurring at a time past, but of 
which a descriptive account is being given. For 
example, / shakes my fist in his face and I says to 
him, "Go!" is vividly expressive, but ungrammat- 
ical. However, Mi minacas lian vizaĝon per 
la mia pugno kaj diras al li For!" has all the 
emphasis which the English sentence receives from 
the use of the present tense, and is grammatically 

The American Esperanto Book 31 

The Past Tense. — When an act occurred at 
some time now wholly past, or was occurring at 
such a time, the past tense is employed: Johano 
skribis r =y^« wrote, or was in the act of writing. 
But again, if we wish to state clearly that he was, 
at some particular time, writing, we use the parti- 
ciple : Johano estis skribanta. 

The Future Tense. — When an action is to 
take place at some future time, we use the future 
tense. Johano skribos=J r ohn will write, or will 
be writing. As with the other tenses, if we wish 
so be precise, to say that at some definite future 
time John will be in the act of writing, the participle 
is necessary: Johano estos skribanta. 

Completed action, indicated in English by 
what are called the perfect tenses, is expressed in 
Esperanto by some form of esti and a past parti- 
ciple of the principal verb: Hi estas kantintaj = 
They have been singing (literally, "they are were 
singing"). This means that now, at this time, the 
act of singing is complete. Hi estis kantintaj = 
They had been singing. Estis refers to a time past, 
and kantintaj indicates that the act of singing was, 
at that time, already finished. Hi estos kantintaj 
= They will have been singing. At the future time 
indicated by estos, the act of singing will have been 

32 The American Esperanto Book 


The Conditional Mode describes an action 
that is conditional ; something that might happen 
or have happened ; something doubtful in itself, or 
contingent upon something else. It is usually 
introduced by the conjunction, se (if). The gram- 
matical sign of the conditional mode is -us, alike 
for all tenses. If time is expressed, this is accom- 
plished by a participle or another verb used in 

Se Si a.mus=I/ she should love. 

Se ŝi estus a.m3.nta= Were she loving. 

Se si estus aminta=7/" she had loved, or been 

Se ŝi estus amont3.= Were she about to love, or 
be loving. 

Se Si estus amata=ff^ she loved, or being 

Se si estus amita : =7) r she had been loved. 

Se Ŝi estus amota= Were she about to be loved. 

Example: Se pluvus, ni iros fiŝkapti= 

Should it rain, we shall go fishing. Here, the first 
verb is conditional, the second indicative. Se 
estus pluvinte, ni irus fiŝkapti=//"// had rained, 
we would go fishing. Here, both verbs are condi- 
tional. The student must not permit himself to 

The American Esperanto Book 33 

be confused regarding the two meanings of should. 
In one sense, this is a conditional auxiliary, and 
as such is used in the foregoing translations. In 
the other sense it expresses duty, as "He should 
love his parents." This has nothing whatever to 
do with the conditional mode of Esperanto, and is 
translated by the verb devi, ought. 

34 The American Espera?ito Book 


The imperative mode indicates command, 
desire, purpose, etc. Its sign is -u. 

In giving commands and making requests it 
is used directly, without connecting words: Haltu! 
—Halt! Prenu pomon\ = Take an apple! Li 
venu tien ĉi \=Let him come here! 

In expressing purpose it is usually preceded 
by ke or por ke: Por ke Si ricevu pardonon, 
ŝi ĝin petu— In order that she receive a pardon, let 
her ask it. Mia patro deziras ke li venu=J/y 

father desires that he come. 

Participles may be used with the imperative : 
Li insistas ke vi estu punata=Zfe insists that you 
be punished. 

The American Esperanto Book 35 


The infinitive mode, sign -i, has no tense, 
signifying simply to be, to love, etc. As with the 
conditional and imperative modes, it may receive 
a suggestion of tense when accompanied by a par- 

Ami = To love. 
Esti amante : =7^ be loving. 
Esti amite = 7<? have been loved. 
Esti amonte = 7^ be about to love. 

A substantival sense is expressed by the 
infinitive, which may of itself be the subject of a 
sentence : Erari estas home ; pardoni, die=To 

err is human) to forgive, divine. 

Note that the adjectives and participles modifying the 
infinitive take the adverbial form. 

36 The American Esperanto Book 


In questions, the indicative mode is used, and 
accompanied by an interrogatory word. There are 
(see Correlative Words) nine interrogatory words 
beginning with k: kia, kial, kiam, kie, kiel, kies, 
kio, kiom, kiu. These words are used in precisely 
the same manner as their English equivalents, 
what, why, when, where, how, etc. 

Kiam li revenos 7 = When will he return? 
Kie ni estas ?== Where are we? 

Any sentence not introduced by one of these 
may be changed to a question by the word ĉu, 
meaning whether: Ĉu vi venos ?= Will you come? 
Cu vi nin amas ?=Do you love us ? 

The American Esperanto Book 37 


A participle is a word derived from a verb 
root, and implying action, though not directly- 
stating it, as does the verb. Participles in Esper- 
anto are of three classes: 

Adjectival — Expressing the quality of being 
in action : Kantanta birdo^^ singing bird-, and, 
with a helping verb, the act itself : La birdo estas 
kantanta=77^ bird is singing. 

Adverbial — Expressing the fact of the action, 
usually by way of connecting it with some other 
act, and always without a directly governing 
substantive: Vidante muson, ŝi forkuris = Seeing 
a mouse, she ran away. 

Substantival — Expressing the act and agent 
in the active form, the act and the recipient in the 
passive: parolanto, the speaker ; parolato, the 
person spoken to. 

The participle plays a much more important 
part in Esperanto than in English, and the student 
must give it careful study. It may have the end- 

38 The American Esperanto Book 

ing of the adjective, adverb or substantive. Its 
signs are: 

-ant-, Present active, 
-int-, Past active. 
-ont-, Future active. 
-at-, Present passive, 
-it-, Past passive. 
-ot-, Future passive. 

An adjectival participle may be directly qual- 
ifying, and as such is usually placed before the 
substantive, as in English : Fluanta akv 0'=Flo <w- 
ing water. When so used, and qualifying a plural 
or accusative substantive, it takes the same case 
and number : Ni vidis la brulantajn domojn= 
We saw the burni?ig houses. 

When used as a predicate, that is, when 
preceded by a form of esti, expressed or implied, 
the participle agrees with the noun as to number, 
but is never accusative : La domoj estas brul- 
antaj == The houses are burni?ig. Ni vidas la 
domojn brulantajn is translated We see the hurtling 
houses. Here, brulantajn is a directly qualifying 
word and hence is accusative because of domojn. 
But if we say Ni vidis la domojn brulantaj = ^<? 
saw the houses burning, this means that we saw the 
houses (first proposition) and also (second propo- 
sition) discovered, or saw, that they were burning : 
We saw the houses to be, (or, that they were) burning. 

The American Esperanto Book 39 

Here, although esti and ke ili estas are omitted, 
the meaning is clearly shown by the nominative 
form of the participle. 

Esperanto participles also convey a sugges- 
tion of tense : Mono havata estas pli grava ol 
havitsi= Money possessed (now) is more important 
than (that which has) been possessed. Pasero 
kaptita estas pli bona ol agio kaptota = A spar- 
row caught is better than an eagle to be caught. 

Adverbial participles have the regular adverb 
ending, e, which is invariable. They are usually 
employed in sentences like the following : Trovinte 
pomon, mi ĝin manĝis=JIaving found an apple, 
I ate it. Promenante sur la strato, mi falis= 
Walking alo?ig the street, I fell. Li venis al mi 
tute ne atendite=ZT<? came to me quite unexpect- 
edly. Here, trovinte and promenante take the 
adverbial ending because there is no substantive to 
which they can directly belong. 

Participles should not be used in lieu of 
simple adjectives and adverbs. When the partici- 
pial form is used, action should always be distinctly 
understood. Fluanta akvo {running water) is 
correct, because action is implied ; amanta edzo 
{a loving husband) would ordinarily be incorrect, 
because quality, and not action, is expressed. 
Here, the simple adjective, ama {affectionate), 

40 The American Esperanto Book 

would be the proper word. Li kantas ĉarme 
{He sings charmingly) , not ĉarmante. 

Substantival participles have the regular o 
sign of the substantive, and indicate, in the active 
form, the person or thing performing the action 
(a participle invariably implies action). In the 
passive form they indicate the recipient of the 

Amanto= r ^ lover — one who is now loving. 

Aminto^^ lover — one who did love. 

Amonto= One who will love. 

Amato=^ beloved person. 

Amito=^ beloved — one who has been loved. 

Amoto — 0?z<? about to be loved. 

The American Esperanto Book 41 


The use of the adverb is to qualify, emphasize 
or explain verbs, adjectives, participles or other 
adverbs. Example : La tre bela, bone vestita 
virino agas apenaŭ gentile — The very beautiful, 
well dressed woman acts hardly politely. The 
four adverbs, tre, bone, apenaŭ and gentile have 
the following positions in the sentence : Tre 
belongs to the adjective, bela; bone belongs to the 
participle, vestita ; gentile to the verb, agas ; 
apenaŭ to the adverb, gentile. As will be seen, 
each adverb conveys some added meaning to the 
word to which it belongs. 

Adverbs regularly derived from a root have 
the ending e, thus : from bel', the root for beauty, 
we have bele, beautifully. Besides this, there are 
some so-called primary adverbs, which do not 
belong to the word-families which spring from each 
root. A few of these have the ending e, but most 
have not. 


The following list includes the primary adverbs 
most used: 

Adiaŭ, Adieu, Goodbye. 

Ain, Ever (after kiam, kie, etc.) 

42 The American Esperanto Book 

Almenaŭ, At least. 

Ankaŭ, Also. 

Ankoraŭ, Yet, Still. 

Apenaŭ, Hardly, Scarcely. 

Baldaŭ, Soon. 

Bis, 0?ice more. 

Ci, The nearest. 

Cial, For every reason. 

ĉiam, Always 

ĉie, Every Where 

Ciel, In Every Way. 

ĉiom, All, All of it. 

Cu, Whether. 

Des pli, The More. 

EC, Even 

For, Away. 

Hierau, Yesterday. 

Hodiaŭ, Today. 

Ial, For Some Cause. 

lam, Some Time, Any Time. 

Ie, Some Where, Any Where. 

Iel, In Some Manner. 

Iom, Some Quantity. 

Ja, Indeed. 

Jam, Already 

Jen, Here, Behold. 

Jes, Yes. 

Ju pli, The More. 

Jus, Just Now 

Kial, Why. 

The American Esperanto Book 43 

Kie, Where. 

Kiel, How, As. 

Kiom, How Much. 

Kvazaŭ, As if. 

Morgaŭ, Tomorrow. 

Ne, Not. 

Nek, Neither, Nor, 

Nenial, For No Cause, 

Neniam, Never, 

Nenie, No Where. 

Neniel, In No Manner, 

Neniom, None. 

Nun, Now. 

Nur, Only. 

Plej, Most. 

Pli, More, 

Plu, Further. 

Preskaŭ, Nearly. 

Tial, For that Cause, 

Tiam, Then. 

Tie, There. 

Tie ĉi, Here, 

Tiel, In that Manner, So, 

Tiom, So Much. 

Tre, Very. 

Tro, Too, 

Tuj, Immediately, 

44 The Ainerican Esperanto Book 


Any root or primary word may be given an 
adverbial meaning by the addition of the adverb 
ending, e, provided this can logically be done. A 
few such words are given in the following list : 

Afrankite, Postage paid. 

Aliloke, Elsewhere. 

Alivorte, In other words. 

Alvenante, Upon arrival. 

Antaŭe, Previously. 

Apart e, Separately, specially. 

Bonstate, In good condition. 

ĉirkaŭe, Around. 

Ciufoje, Every time. 

ĉiujare, Yearly. 

ĉiumonate, Monthly. 

Ĉiusemajne, Weekly. 

Ĉiutage, Daily. 

Dekstre, On the right. 

Efektive, Actually. 

Ekstere, Outwardly. 

Escepte, Excepting. 

Gustatempe, Promptly, at the right time. 

Intence, Intentio?ially. 

Jene, As follows. 

Jese, Affirmatively. 

Kaŝe, Secretly. 

Kompate, Mercifully, Sympathetically. 

Kompreneble, Of course. 

The A?nerican Esperanto Book 45 

Laŭlarge, As to width. 

Laŭlonge, Lengthwise. 

Laŭvole, At will. 

Laŭte, Loudly. 

Lerte, Skillfully. 

Male, On the contrary. 

Malfacile, With difficulty. 

Maldekstre, On the left. 

Malkaŝe, Openly, without concealment. 

Malmulte, Not much. 

Malproksime, In the distance, afar. 

Malpleje, Least. 

Malrekte, Indirectly, slantingly. 

Malsupre, Below. 

Matene, In the morning. 

Multe, Much. 

Nelonge, Not long. 

Nedube, Doubtlessly. 

Nune, At present. 

Nuntempe, Nowadays. 

Pace, Peacefully. 

Parole, Verbally. 

Pere, By indirect means. 

Persone, Personally. 

Piedire, On foot. 

Pleje, Mostly. 

Plezure, With pleasure. 

Plivole, Preferably. 

Plue, Furthermore. 

Poste, Afterwards. 

46 The American Esperanto Book 

Precipe, Especially. 

Proksime, Near, 

Proksimume, Approximately, 

Rapidire, By fast means, express. 

Ree, Again. 

Rekte, Directly. 

Sajne, Seemingly. 

Sekve, Consequently. 

Senescepte, Without exception, 

Senintermanke, Uninterruptedly. 

Senpage, Free, without pay. 

Sensence, Without sense. 

Skribe, In writing* 

Somere, In summer. 

Speciale, Specially, 

Sufiĉe, Sufficiently, 

Supre, Above, 

Tiamaniere, In such a manner, 

Treege, Extremely. 

Troe, Excessively. 

Tute, Totally, entirely , quite. 

Vole, Voluntarily. 

Volonte, Willingly. 

The A??ieriean Esperanto Book 47 


Prepositions are used to define relations be- 
tween other words, or phrases : La hundo kuŝas 
antaŭ la fajro — 77z<? dog- lies before the fire. Resti 
apud vi estas, sen escepto, la plej bone el ĉiuj 
plezuroj=7# stay near you is, without exception, 
the best of (from among) all pleasures. 

The complement (accompanying substantive) 
of a preposition is always in the nominative case, 
unless, to show direction, the accusative is used. 

Rule XIV permits the omission of the prepo- 
sition where the sense does not clearly show which 
one to use, and in such cases the substantive is 
made accusative. We can also use the general, 
undefined preposition, je. 

Every preposition except Je has a fixed and 
constant meaning, which should be learned. So 
many English prepositions are used for more than 
one idea that ridiculous errors would arise from 
their literal translation .• He talked over the tele- 
phone, to a firm over the river, and sold over eighteen 
cases of eggs that had been left over. Here, two 
prepositions, per, meaning by means' of % and trans, 

48 The America?! Esperanto Book 

beyond, would be used, in the two other cases the 
meaning would require words which are not prepo- 
sitions, and at no point does the Esperanto prepo- 
sition, super, meaning over or above, enter into 
consideration ! 

The following examples show most of the 
ordinary uses of the prepositions : 


Li iros al Bostono^Zfe will go to Boston. 

Mi rompis al mi la brakon=/ broke my arm. 

Li havas amon al la patro=J7e has love for 
his father. 

Donu al mi la libron=GVp* (to) me the book. 

Ordonu al li ke li venu= Order (to) him to 
(that he) come. 

Aldonu al tiu sumo kvin dolarojn=^^/ to 
that sum five dollars. 


Anstataŭ konsilo, mi deziras prunton=/#- 

stead of advice, I want a loan. 

Anstataŭ plori, la vidvino devas ĝoji=/«- 

stead of weeping (to weep), the widow should rejoice. 


Arbo staras antaŭ la domo=^ tree stands in 
front of the house. 

Iru antaŭ mi=Go before me. 

The American Esperanto Book 49 

Antaŭ niaj okuloj flugis fantomo=£ ef ore our 
eyes there flew a phantom. 

Antaŭ ol morgaŭ, li venos=Before tomorrow, 
he will come, 

Antaŭ tri tagoj, li venis = Three days ago, he 

The use of antaŭ in the last two sentences is 
worthy of special observation. The tense of the 
verb, and the conjunction ol, show in the first that 
a future time is mentioned ; while in the latter, the 
absence of ol and the past tense of the verb show 
that the time referred to has passed. 


La fonto apud la granda arbo= The spring 
near the large tree, 

Bulonjo apud£oulogne-on-the-Sea. 


Atendu ĉe la postofico= Wait at the post office. 

Mi estos ĉe vi—f shall be at your house (liter- 
ally, at you). 

Li venis ĉe la deka — He came at ten. 

Ke ĉe ĉiu vorto kiun vi diros=77*0/ at every 
word you speak. 

Ce la komparativo oni uzas la konjunkcion 
o\=With the comparative one uses the conjunction ol. 

Koro ĉe koro ni parolis=^? talked heart to 

50 The America?i Esperanto Book 


Soldatoj staras ĉirkaŭ la domo— Soldiers are 
standing around the house. 

La prezo estas ĉirkaŭ kvindek cendoj=7^ 
price is about fifty cents. 

Mi venos ĉirkaŭ la sepa horo=/ shall come 
about the seventh hour. 

Li sŭrmetis ledan zonon ĉirkaŭ la ta\io=IZc 
put a leather belt around his waist. 

"DA— OF 

This preposition is used only after words denot- 
ing quantity, weight, number or measure. 

Funto da teo = A pound of tea. 
Multe da pensoj=7J/tf;zy (of) thoughts, 
Miloj da homo]= Thousands of men. 
Peco da ligno=^4 piece of wood. 

The beginner will find great care necessary to 
avoid confusion as to da and de. Compare care- 
fully the examples. 


This preposition is used as the sign of posses- 
sion, and to connect the passive participle with its 
complement. It also indicates origin, place of 
beginning, etc. : 

La libro de Johano=y^/j , i > book. 

La filino estas amata de sia patro=77^ 
daughter is loved by her father. 

The American Esperanto Book 51 

De tia kauzo=From such a cause. 

Tio dependas de lia respondo=77ztf/ depends 
upon his reply. 

De loko al \cko=-From ptace to place. 

Mi foriros de tie t\=I shall go away from 

Li loĝas malproksime de tie ĉi=He lives far 
from here. 

Li loĝas proksime de tie ĉi=He lives near 

De ilia unua renkonto=6V>^ (from) their first 

De tri tagpj mi ne manĝas=7^r three days I 
have not eaten. 

Li mortis de malsato=^> died of hunger. 


Dum la nuna iaro : =I>uring this year. 
Dum li parolas= While he is talking. 


Ekster la domo=Outside the house. 
Ekster tiuj ĉi ksiŭzo] = Outside these causes. 


Plej bona el ĉi\i]=Besl of all. 
Unu el ni devas iri=One of us ought to go. 
Elĉizita el ma.rmovo=Chiseledfrom marble. 
Li iros el la urbo=Zfe will go out of the city. 

52 The American Espera?ito Book 

Muŝo venis el sub la lito=y4 mouse came froth 
under the bed. 


This word is also translated into. When this 
meaning is implied it must be followed by the 
accusative of direction. 

Hi iras en la preĝejon=7%o> are going into 
the church. 

Hi estas en la preĝejo=7^o / are in the church. 

Nokto en somero=^ night in summer. 

En tia okazo=(9« such an occasion. 

Estas dudek-kvar horoj en tago= There are 
twenty-four hours in a day. 


Vi povas veni ĝis la pordego=F<?# may come 
as far as the gate. 

De Marto ĝis Ma}0=Erom March until May. 
Atendu ĝis morgaŭ= Wait until tomorrow. 


Inter aliaj aferoj=^;;/d?;^ other matters. 

Inter la du 2xcĤkoy=Between the two frie?ids. 

Inter Marto kaj Ma]o=Between March and 

La amikoj malkonsentis inter si= The friends 
disagreed among theifiselves. 

The American Esperanto Book 53 


This preposition has no fixed meaning, and is 
used only when the sense does not clearly require 
some other word : 

Li ridas je mia eraro—JIe laughs at my error, 

Je la unua okazo=^/ the first opportunity. 

Li ekkaptis la hundon je la ĝorĝo=Zfe caught 
the dog by the throat. 

Je la kyara de marto=0« the fourth of March. 

Alta je ses futoj =Six feet high. 

Je la unua fojo en sia vivo=I , or the first time 
in his life. 


Kontraŭ la hotĉlo= Opposite the hotel. 

Ni iris kontrau la vento= We went against the 

La armeo marŝis kontraŭ la arbo=7%<? army 
marched against the city. 

La pastro predikis kontraŭ la ebrieco=7^ 
pastor preached against drunkenness. 


La vento, krom forta, estas tre malvarma= 

The wind, besides (being) strong, is very cold. 

Krom mono, Si havis belecot&=Besides money 
she had beauty. 

54 The American Esperanto Book 


This word is never used where the relation is 
that of means or instrument, per being the correct 
preposition in such cases. 

Li edziĝos kun Mario=i7<? will marry (with) 

Resti kun leono estas danĝere=7 T <? remain 
with a lion is dangerous. 

Li laboras kun pacienco=Zfe labors with 


Laŭ mia opinio =According to my opinion. 

Laŭ la leĝo= According to law. 

Laŭ vico=/# turn, according to rank. 

Laŭ lia kutima maniero=/# his customary 

Promenante laŭ la rivero= While walking 
along the river. 

Malgraŭ ĉio, ni atingos la celon=Not with- 
standing everything, we will attain the purpose. 


This preposition indicates the means, tool or 
instrument by means of which an act. is accom- 
plished, and translates with, through, by means of. 

Li silentigis ilin per rigardo— 7/i? silenced them 
with a look. 

The American Esperanto Book 55 

Oni tranĉas per tranĉilo= One cuts with a 


Po du dolaroj ciutage=^/ the rate of two dol- 
lars per day. 

Li aĉetis tri librojn po unu dolaro=Zfe bought 
three books at the rate of one dollar (Not "at the 
price of"; see Por). 


Li aĉetis tri librojn por unu Ĝ.Q\vxo—He 

bought three books for one dollar. 

La patrino diras ke estas tempo por ĉio= 
Mother says there is a time for everything. 

Li venis por vin danki=Zfe came (for) to 
thank you. 

Por ke vi ne forgesu, skribu ĝin=Zest you 
forget, write it down. 


When used with reference to time, this word 
means after. 

Post la ĉevalino trotas ĉevalido=Behind the 

mare trots a colt. 

Post hodiaŭ=^//d7- today. 
Horo post horo=JZour after hour. 
Iom post iom=Zittle by little. 
Post unu iaro= After one year. 

56 The American Esperanto Book 

Post la domo=Behind the house. 

Post kiam la horloĝo batos la dekan, vi 
devos ioriri=A fter the clock strikes ten, you will 
have to leave. 

Post via reveno= After your return. 


Preter is translated by or past with respect to 
motion and relative position — not time: 

Mi iris preter la fenestroj de la domo=/ 

went past the windows of the house. 


Mi demandis lin pri la vojo=/ asked him 
about the way. 

Ne pensu pri ĝ\=Do not think about it. 

Li paroladis pri Afriko=ZT<? lectured on Africa. 


Li demandis Sin, pro kio si ploras=Zte asked 
her for (on account of) what she was crying. 
Pro manko de tempo=^r lack of time. 
Mi dankas vin pro la sendo de la libro=/ 

thank you for sending the book. 


Li ne povas vivi sen ŝi=He cannot live with- 
out her. 

Dek sen kvar faras ses = 7>;z less four makes 

Prepositions 57 


Spite la gepatroj, Ŝi edzinigis^/w spite of her 
parents, she married. 

Oni lin arestis, spite lia baraktado=7^o' 

arrested hint in spite of his struggles. 


This preposition means over and above in the 
sense of relative position, and must never be used 
in translating such phrases as "over the tele- 
phone" — use per; "over the river," meaning 
across or beyond — use trans ; "over the electric," 
meaning by way of — use laŭ. 

Super la tero sin trovas aero=Above the earth 
is found (finds itself) air. 

Birdoj flugis super niaj kapoj =Birds flew over 
our heads. 


Translated on or upon, and implies, in this use, 
contact. Where direction is expressed, it is fol- 
lowed by the accusative, and means on to : 

Sur la tablo kuŝas papero— -P^r lies upon 
the table. 

Li staris supre sur la monto kaj rigardis 
malsupren sur la kampon==£fe stood above upon 
the mountain and gazed below upon the field. 

Hi ekpafis sur neofendajn vilaĝanojn=7%<y 
fired upon inoffensive villagers. 

58 The American Esperanto Book 


This word means through in a strict sense, and 
always implies motion or relative position. 

Li promenis tralaarbaro— Zfc walked through 
the street. 

Tra la mondo iras forta voYo— Through the 
world there goes a strong call. 


La hirundo flugis trans la riveron, car trans 
la rivero sin trovis aliaj hirundoj = 7^ swallow 
flew across the river, because beyond the river were 
(found themselves) other swallows. 

Trans la strato=A cross the street. 

The American Esperanto Book 59 


A conjunction is a word used to join other 
words, phrases or parts of sentences. Its function 
may be merely that and nothing more, as .♦ Bovo 
kaj ĉevalo=^7z ox and a horse. It may also estab- 
lish a definite relation between the parts of a sen- 
tence : Pluvis ; tial, ni restis hejme=7/ rained; 
therefore, we remained at home. 

Conjunctions do not require the careful study 
necessary for the correct use of the prepositions, 
and need only be memorized. According to use, 
some words may be either conjunctions, adverbs 
or prepositions, but as a rule the student need not 
trouble himself to analyze these delicate distinc- 
tions. Following is a list of the words most used 
as conjunctions : 

Alie, Otherwise. 
Almenaŭ, At least. 
Aŭ, Or, 

Aŭ aŭ, Either or. 

Car, Because, for. 

Cu, Whether. 

Do, Indeed, therefore indeed. 

EC se, Even if. 

Escepte se, Unless (Excepting if). 

6o The American Esperanto Book 

Ja, Indeed y hi fact. 

Jen jen, Now now, now again, 

Kaj, And. 
Ke, That. 

Kvank'am, Although. 
Nek, Nor. 

Nek nek, Neither nor, 

Ol, Than. 

Por ke, In order that. 

Se, //. 

Sed, But. 

Sekve, Consequently. 

Tamen, However, nevertheless, 

Tia kia, Such as. 

Tia ke, Such that. 

Interjections 61 


Interjections are exclamatory words, usually 
more or less emphatic in meaning. They are not 
arranged in sentences, have no grammatical re- 
sponsibilities, and more closely resemble the prim- 
itive animal cries and exclamations than any other 
part of human speech. They may express fear, 
pain, warning, surprise, doubt, entreaty, command, 
grief, joy, approval, contempt, etc. Following is 
a list of Esperanto words, some of which are always 
interjections, others frequently used as such : 

Adiaŭ! Farewell! 

Antaŭen! Forward! 

Bis ! Encore ! 

Bone! Well! 

Bonvenu ! Welcome ! 

Brave ! Bravo ! 

Certe ! Certainly ! 

Efektive ! Really! 

Fi! Fit 

For ! Away ! 

Ha! Ah\ Ha\ 

He ! Hey ! Hello ! 

Ho! Oh\ Ho\ 

Ho ve ! Alas ! 

Hontu ! Be ashamed \ Shame \ 

62 The American Esperanto Book 

Hura ! Hurrah ! 

J a ! Indeed J 

Jen! Behold \ Look\ 

Kompreneble ! Of course ! 

Ne ! No ! 

Nu ! Well ! 

Ve ! Woe ! 

Vere ! Really ! 

The American Esperanto Book 63 


The cardinal numerals do not change in form 
to agree with words to which they belong. This is 
the meaning of Rule IV, which says that they are 
not declined. They are: 

Unu, one ; du, two ; tri, three ; kvar, four ; 
kvin, five ; ses, six ; sep, seven ; ok, eight ; nau, 
nine ; dek, ten ; cent, hundred '; mil, thousand; 
miliono, ?nillion. 

The tens and hundreds are formed by joining 
numerals ; when the relation is one of multiplication 
the smaller number comes first : dudek, twenty ; 
kvardek, forty ; sepcent or sep cent, seven hun- 
dred. The units are added to the tens and hundreds 
when placed after them : dekunu, eleven ; dekdu, 
twelve ; dekses, sixteen; kvar dek-kvar, forty-four. 
[See Exercises 12 and 14]. 

Adjectival ordinals are formed by adding the 
adjective ending : unua, /n/; dua, second; tria, 
third; mil naŭcent kaj sepa, nineteen hundred and 

Adverbial ordinals are obtained by adding 
the adverb ending: unue, firstly; due, secondly; 
kvine, fifthly. 

64 The Numerals 

Fractionals are made by adding the suffix on, 
with the ending of the substantive, adverb or 
adjective, according to meaning : triono, one-third; 
kvinone, one-fifthly. 

Multiples are formed by adding obi, with the 
adjective or adverb ending : unuobla, single ; du- 
obla, double ; trioble, triply ; kvaroble, quadruply. 

Collective numerals are made by the addition 
of the suffix op: duope, two together ; kvarope, 
four abreast, by fours. 

Substantival numerals are formed by adding 
the substantive ending, o. These are subject to 
the rules governing all substantives : cento, a 
hundred (considered as a unit); miloj kaj miloj, 

thousands and thousands. 

Prefixes and Suffixes 65 


Esperanto is equipped with a system of prefixes 
and suffixes which give a wide range of expression 
to a very small vocabulary. Taking a root word 
for the central thought, these affixes are used to 
express the various ideas arising from the central 
idea. In Exercise 42, Dr. Zamenhof shows us 
fifty-three words thus formed from one root, The 
only limit to such combinations is legibility and 


BO indicates relationship by marriage: frato, 
brother ; bofrato, brother-in-law. 

ĈEF chief or principal : kuiristo, a cook ; 
ĉefkuiristo, a head cook. 

DE means /rom or of : prem, to lake ; depreni, 
to take from. 

DIS dismemberment or separation : semi, to 
sow ; dissemi, to scatter broadcast ; ŝiri, to tear ; 
disŝiri, to tear apart, tear to pieces. 

EK to begin suddenly ; something of short 
duration : ridi, to laugh ; ekridi, to burst out 
out laughing. 

EKS same as the English ex : eksprezidanto, 

66 The American Esperanto Book 

FOR signifies away : iri, to go ; foriri, to go 

GE both sexes taken together : patro, father ; 
gepatroj, parents, 

MAL the direct opposite: bona, good; mal- 
bona, bad-, alta, high ; malta, low. 

NE denotes neutral or negative: bela, beautiful; 
nebela, plain (not necessarily ugly — for direct 
contraries use mal). 

PRA means either great or primordial-, avo, 
grandfather ; praavo, great grandfather ; patro, 
father; prapatroj, forefathers. 

RE to repeat or reverse : diri, to say ; rediri, 
to repeat; veni, to go; reveni, to return. 

SEN equivalent of -less, the English suffix : 
haro, hair; senhara, bald, hairless. 


AD denotes continued action, meaning the same 
as the English substantival participle ending, -ing : 
kanto, a song; kantado, singing. 

4-N an inhabitant or partisan of : Ameriko, 
America ; amerikano, an American ; Kristo, Christ, 
kristano, a Christian. 

Suffixes 67 

AJ a concrete idea or object, possessing the 
quality indicated by the root: bela, beautiful-, 
belaĵo, a beautiful object ; bovo, an ox ; bovaĵo, 

AR a collection or group of things : arbo, a 
tree; arbaro, a forest ; vorto, a word; vortaro, 
a dictionary. 

ĈJ affectionate diminutive for masculine names: 
Johano, John , Johanĉjo, Johnnie ; patro, father; 
paĉjo, pa, papa. 

EBL denotes possibility: vidi, to see; videbla, 
visible ; porti, to carry ; portebla, portable. 

EC denotes the abstract quality : bela, beauti- 
ful ; beleco, beauty, bona, good ; boneco, goodness. 

EG denotes increased degree or size : varma, 
warm ; varmega, hot ; pordo, door ; pordego, 
a gate. 

EJ indicates place of action or place devoted 
to: lerni, to learn; lernejo, a school. 

EM shows tendency or inclination ; labori, 
to work ; labor em a, industrious. 

ER denotes a single object as distinguished 
from the collective term : mono, money ; monero, 
a coin\ sablo, sand', sablero, a grain of sand. 

ESTR a leader or manager : urbo, city ; 
urbestro, mayor; ŝipo, ship; ŝipestro, captain. 

68 The Americaii Esperanto Book 

ET denotes diminution of size or degree : 
varma, warm ; yarmeta, lukewarm ; tranĉilo, a 
knife ; tranĉileto, a pen knife. 

ID denotes the young of, or a descendant of : 
kato, cat ; katido, kitten ; reĝo, king; reĝido, 
a prince. 

IG means to cause to become-, riĉa, rich', riĉigi, 
to enrich ; pura, clean; purigi, to clean. (Ig verbs 
are always transitive). 

IG means to become : riĉiĝi, to become rich ; 
puriĝi, to become clea7i. (Iĝ verbs are always in- 
transitive and can never take the passive participle 
forms, at, it or ot). 

IL denotes the instrument or tool : kudri, to 
sew ; kudrilo, a needle; pafi, shoot ; pafilo, gun. 

IN suffix of the feminine: frato, brother ; 
fratino, sister ; koko, chicken ; kokino, hen. 

IND denotes worthiness : ami, to love ; am- 
inda, amiable; kredi, to believe; kredinda, worthy 
of belief. 

ING holder for a single object : plumo, a pen; 
plumingo, pe?iholder ; cigaringo, cigarholder. 

1ST denotes a person professionally occupied 
with, or associated with : kanti, to sing; kantisto, 
a professional singer ; metio, a craft ; metiisto, 
a craftsman. 

Suffixes 69 

NJ affectionate diminutive for feminine names : 
Mario, Mary ; Marinjo or Manjo, Molly ; patrino, 
mother ; panjo, ma, mamma. 

UJ signifies that which bears, contains or pro- 
duces : kremo, cream ; kremujo, a cream pitcher ; 
pomo, apple ; pomujo, apple tree ; turko, a turk\ 
Turkujo, Turkey. 

UM has no definite meaning : mano, hand ; 
manumo, cuff; malvarma, cold; malvarmumi, 

to catch cold. 

UL indicates a person of the quality implied : 
granda, large ; grandulo, a large person ; pia, 
pious ; piulo, a pious person. 

AC, a suffix indicating contempt or unworthiness, being 
the opposite of ind, is used by many Esperantists, though not 
yet officially authorized by Lingva Komitato. Example: 
hundo, dog; hundaĉo, cur; pia, pious; piaĉa, sanctimonious. 


The demand of logic is that the affix standing 
nearest the root first attach its significance to the 
word: monto, mount ai?i \ montego, a large moun- 
tain ; mont-eg-an-ar-o, a band of people of the 
large mountain ; mont-ar-an-eg-o, a large moun- 
taineer ; mont-et-an-ar-eg-o, a large band of people 
of the hills. These are exaggerated illustrations, 
and simplicity is no less desirable in Esperanto 
than anywhere else. 

70 The American Esperanto Book 


Among the few original words of Esperanto 
(the immense majority having been taken from 
living European languages) are forty-five pronouns, 
adjectives, adverbs and conjunctive adverbs, so 
nicely correlated as to render most of them self- 

As to application, they have five significations, 
indicated by the beginnings : 

I, indefinite, signifying some or any. 

Ĉ, distributive or collective, signifying each, 
every, all. 

K, interrogative or relative, signifying what, 

NEN, negative, meaning none, no. 

T, demonstrative — that. 

As to meaning, they have nine general signi- 
fications, indicated by nine endings : ia, ial, iam, 
ie, iel, ies, io, iom, iu. 



l8i=Some kind of, any kind of, some, any. 
ĉia=£ach kind of, each, every. 

Correlative Words 71 

Kia= What kind of, as. 

Nenia=iV<? kind of , no such a, no. 
Tia= That kind of , such a kind, such a. 



lal—Eor some reason, for some cause, for any 

Cia\=Eor every reason, all reasons. 
Kia\=Eor what reason? Why, wherefore,- 
Nenial=7^r no reason, for no cause. 
Tial=Eor that reason, for that cause, therefore. 



Iam= At any time, some time, ever. 
Ciam=^ all times, all the time, always. 
Kiam=^/ what time? When. 
Neniam=^/' no time, never. 
Tiam=At that time, then. 



Ie=Some place, any place, somewhere, anywhere. 
Ciĉ=Everywhere, in every place. 
Kie= : In what place? Where. 
N enie= In no place, nowhere. 
TiQ = There, in that place. 

72 The American Esperanto Book 


Ie\=fn some way, somehow, anyhow, in any 

Cie\=fn every manner, every way, all ways, by 
all means. 

Kiel=/;z what manner? How, as, like. 
Neniel=/;z no manner, in no way, by no means. 
Tiel^/rc that way, thus, so, as, like. 



Ies r — Somebody's, anybody's, anyone's. 

ĉiĉS=Every body's, each 

Kies= Whose. 

Nenies— iVtf body's, 710 one's. 

Ties = That one's, such a person's. 


Substantival and Pronomtnax. 

Io— Some thing, anything. 
Ĝio— Everything, all things, all. 
Kio= What, which, that which. 
N e n i o =JVolh ing. 
Tio= That, that thing. 

Correlative Words 73 



Iom=Some quantity, some, a little. 
Ĉiom— All, all of it, every quantity. 
Kiom=How much, how many, as. 
Neniom^iVtf quantity, none. 
Tiom = 77ztf/ much, that many, as ?nany. 


Iu=Anyone, anybody, some person. 

Ciu=£ very one, each one, each, every, ĉiuj, all. 

Kiu= Who, which, what one. 

Neniu— iV<?&?^, no one. 

Tiu = That person, that one, that. 

ĈI, denoting proximity, is added to three 
demonstratives: tie ĉi, here, in this place ; tio ĉi, 
this thing; tiu ĉi, this. 

A demonstrative and relative of the same 
series are used in comparisons : Tiel bona kiel= : 
As good as. Tiom multe kiom=^.r much as, as 
many as, so much as. Tia homo \&di=Such a per- 
son as. 

See Exercise 30 and accompanying notes 

74 The American Esperanto Book 


The present custom with regard to punctuation 
is for each writer to follow the methods of his own 
language, it being practically impossible to change 
the meaning of a sentence by punctuation, which is 
so frequently possible in English. The same lati- 
tude is permitted in the use of capital letters, but 
on this point Esperanto printers have arrived at 
certain seemingly international styles. The main 
points of variance between English and Esperanto 
in this respect are : 

Names of Countries begin with capitals, but 
the names of races, with the correlative adjectives 
and adverbs, do not : Francujo, France ; franco, 
a Frenchman ; franca, French ; france, in French, 
The same rule applies to political parties, orders, 
churches, etc. The names of the days of the week 
are begun with small letters. 

Order of Words 75 


Esperanto being intended for ready use by- 
peoples of widely different language systems, it is 
indeed wise that it be so constructed that chang- 
ing the order of words would not, ordinarily, change 
the sense. 

La beleta i?ifano senzorge rompis la novan ludilon. 
Senzorge rompis la beleta infano la novan ludilon* 
Beleta la infano novan la ludilon senzorge ro??ipis. 
Ludilon la novan rompis senzorge la infano beleta. 

This sentence, "The pretty child carelessly 
broke the new toy," cannot be erroneously trans- 
ited, whatever the word order. Although the 
order first given is preferred, the others are not 
grammatically incorrect. On the whole, however, 
the order of words in Esperanto is so nearly the 
same as in English that the student may safely 
follow, at first, his natural inclinations. The 
Esperanto style will not be at all difficult to ac- 
quire, and may be attained much more easily by 
reading good literature than by memorizing rules. 

76 The American Esperanto Book 


As rapidly as possible, all important proper 
names are being adopted into the Esperanto family 
and receiving an international spelling, Some of 
them are rendered according to sound, others ac- 
cording to meaning. Generally speaking, it would 
seem that the best Esperantists of a given nation 
are of necessity the authorities as to the spelling 
of names connected with their own land, as they 
are naturally more familiar with their origin and 
spirit. There is no apparent need of attempting 
to resolve into Esperanto the names of small towns 
and affairs of local significance, unless they con- 
tain letters not found in the Esperanto alphabet. 


The following series of exercises belongs to the 
Fundamento de Esperanto, They are a part of the 
unchangeable foundation of the language, carefully 
arranged by Dr. Zamenhof , author of Esperanto. 
The compiler of this book has added the transla- 
tions and comment, with an occasional explanatory 
word accompanying the vocabularies. 

The learner may begin the study of the Exer- 
cises without going at length into the foregoing 
discussion of the Grammar, but will find the latter 
useful for reference and review. 

How to Study 

Persons studying in classes will devise methods 
adapted to their needs and convenience, but to the 
person studying alone a few suggestions may prove 
of value. Go over carefully, all least twice, all 
that is said herein on pronunciation. Then take 
up, in their order, the Exercises. 

Pronounce the words aloud, for this will help 
to familiarize the sense of hearing, though you hear 
only your own voice ; you will thus be able to con- 
verse with the first Esperantist whom you meet. 

Memorize each vocabulary as you proceed. A 
good plan is to memorize also the names of famil- 

78 American Esperanto Book 

iar objects seen every day, and form sentences 
addressed to or about them as you see them. 
Learn to name them in Esperanto at sight. 

When you have finished the Exercises, subscribe 
to at least one Esperanto journal, where you will 
find announcements concerning a great assortment 
of books, as well as addresses of persons who wish 
to correspond in the language. 


Before attempting this Exercise, please read 
very carefully Page 7 and those following, on pro- 
nunciation. So many persons have asked that this 
book contain keyed words showing pronunciation 
that this is attempted here. The student must 
realize that the puzzling added consonants are 
frequently inserted only to certify the vowel sound; 
and especially note that eh signifies a sound be- 
tween long a and short e. The accented syllable, 
marked ' , is always the one next to the last. 





























Ci'-a. Ci'-a. 
tsee-ah chee-ah 

Exercises Jg 

Pro-ce'-so. Sen-ce'sa. Ec. EC. Ek. Da. Lu'-do. 
pro-tseh-so sehn-cheh-sah ehts ehch ehk dah loo-do 

Den'-to. Plen'-di. El. En. De. Te'-ni. Sen. 
dehn-to plehn-dee ehl ehn deh teh-ni. sehn 

Ve'-ro. Fa'-li. Fi-de'-la. Tra'-fi. Ga'-lo. Gran'- 
veh-ro. fah-lee fee-deh-lah trah-fee. gah-lo grahn- 

da. Gen'-to. Gip'-so. Gus'-to. Le'-gi. Pa'-go. 
dah gehn-to geep-so goos-to leh-gee pah-go 

Pa'-go. Le'-go. Ĝis. Gus'-ta. Re'-gi. Gar-de'-no. 

pah-jo leh-jo jees joos-tah reh-jee jar-deh-no 

Lon'-ga. Reg'-no. Sig'-ni. Gvar-di'-o. Lin'-gvo. 
lohn-gah rehg-no seeg-nee gvar-dee-o leen-gvo 

Gu-a'-do. Ha'-ro. Hi-run'-do. Ha'-ki. Ne-he'-la. 
joo-ah-do hah-ro hee-roon-do hah-kee ne-heh-lah 

Pac-ho'-ro. Ses-ho'ra. Bat-hu'-fo. Ho'-ro. Ho'-ro. 
pahts-hoh-ro sehs-hoh-rah baht-hoo-fo hoh-ro h/to-ro 

Ko-le' ro. Ho-le'-ro. He-mi'-o. I-mi'-ti. Fi'-lo. 
koh-leh-ro hAo-leh-ro hAe-mee-o ee-mee-tee fee-lo 

Bir'-do. Tro'-vi. Prin-tem'-po. Min. Fo-ir'o. 
beer-do troh-vee preen-tehm-po meen foh-ee-ro 

Fe-i'-no. I'-el. I'-am. In. Jam. Ju. Jes. Ju- 
feh-ee-noo ee-ehl ee-ahm een yahm yoo yehs yoo- 

ris'-to. Kra-jo'-no. Ma-jes'-ta. Tuj. Do'-moj. 
rees-to krah-yo-no mah-yehs-tah tooy doh-moy 

Ru-i'-no. Pruj'-no. Ba-la'-i. Pa'-laj. De-i'-no. 
roo-ee-no prooy-no bah-lah-ee pah-ligh deh-ee-no 

Vej'-no. Pe-re'-i. Mal'-plej. Jus'-ta. Jus. Je'-ti. 
vay-no peh-reh-ee mahl-play zhoos-tah zhoos zheh-tee 

Ja-lu'-za. Jur-na'-lo. Ma'-jo. Bo-na'-ĵo. Ka'-po. 

zhah-loo-zah zhoor-nah-lo mah-yo bo-nah-zho kah-po 

80 The American Esperanto Book 

Ma-ku'-lo. Kes'-to. Su-ke'-ro. Ak'-vo. Ko-ke'-to. 
ma-koo-lo kehs-to soo-keh-ro ahk-vo ko-keh-to 

Li-kvo'-ro. Pac-ka'-po. 
lee-kvo-ro pahts-kah-po 


La'-vi. Le-vi'lo. Pa-ro'-li. Mem. Im-pli'-ki. 

Em-ba-ra'-so. No'-mo. In-di-fe-ren'-ta. In-ter-na- 

ci'-a. 01. He-ro'-i. He-ro-i'-no. Foj'-no. Pi'-a. 

Pal'-pi. Ri-pe'-ti. Ar-ba'-ro. Sa'ma. Sta'ri. 

Si-ge'-lo. Sis-te'-mo. Pe-si'-lo. Pe-zi'-lo. Sen'-ti. 

So-fis'mo. Ci-pre'-so. ŝi. Pa'-So. Sta'-lo. sta'-lo. 

Ves'-to. Ves'-to. Dis-Si'ri. san-ce'-li. Ta-pi'-So. 
vehsh-to vehss-to. dees-shee-ree shahn-tseh-lee ta-pee-sho 

Te-o-ri'-o. Pa-ten'-to. U-ti'-la. Un'-go. Plu'-mo. 

Tu-mul'to. Plu. Lu'-i. Ki'-u. Ba-la'-u. Tra-u'- 

lo. Pe-re'-u. Ne-u'-lo. Frau-lo. Pau-li'-no. 

Lau'-di. Eu-ro'-po Tro-u'zi. Ho-di'-au. Va'-na. 
lahw-di ehw-roh-po tro-oo-zee hoh-dee-ow vah-nah 

Ver'so. Sol'-vi. Zor'-gi. Ze-ni'to. Zo-o-lo-gi-o. 

A-ze'no. Me-zu'-ro. Na'-zo. Tre-zo'-ro. Mez- 

nok'to. Zu'-mo. Su'-mo. Zo'-no. So'-no. Pe'-zo. 

a One of the numbered sections of the Ekzercaro is omitted 
here, the matter being found in the beginning of this book. 

Exercises 8 1 

Pe'-co. Pe'-so. Ne-ni'-o. A-di'au. Fi-zi'-ko. 
Ge-o-gra-fi'-o. Spi-ri'to. Lip-ha'ro. In-dig-'ni. 
Ne-ni'-el. Spe-gu'-lo. Spi'-no. Ne'-i. Re'-e. He- 
ro'-o. Kon-sci'-i. Tra-e-te'-ra. He-ro-e'-to. Lu'-e. 
Mo'-le. Pa -le. Tra-i'-re. Pa-si'-e. Me-ti'-o. In- 
ge-ni-e'-ro. In-sek'-to. Re-ser'-vi. Re-zer-vi. 


Pronounce carefully the following words, giving 
attention to the division into syllables, which is 
not marked. Always speak slowly and clearly, 
never slurring a sound or leaving a letter "silent": 

Citrono. Cento. Sceno. Scio. Balau. ŝanceli. 
Neniel. Embaraso. Zoologio. Reservi. Traire. 
Hodiaŭ. Disŝiri. Ne-u-lo. Majesta. Packapo. 
Heroino. Pezo. Internacia. Seshora. Cipreso. 
Stalo. Feino. Plu. Sukero. Gento. Indigni. 
Sigelo. Krajono. Ruino. Pesilo. Lipharo. Me- 
tio. Ĝardeno. Sono. Laŭdi. Pale. Facila. In- 
sekto. Kiu. Zorgi. ĉikano. Traetera. Sofismo. 
Domoj. Spino. Majo. Signi. Ec. Bonaĵo. Legi. 
Iel. Juristo. ĉielo. 

82 The American Esperanto Book 


patro, father. kolombo, dove. 

kaj, and. birdo, bird. 

frato, brother. aparteni, to belong to. 

leono, lion. al, to. 

esti, to be. suno, sun. 

besto, beast brili, to shine. 

rozo, rose. sana, well, healthy, 

ŭoro, flower, tajloro, tailor. 

la, the (definite article). 

o, substantive (noun) ending. 

a, adjective ending 

as, verb ending, present tense. 

1 Patro kaj frato. 2 Leono estas besto. 8 Rozo 
estas floro kaj kolombo estas birdo. * La rozo 
apartenas al Teodoro. 5 La suno brilas. 6 La a patro 
estas sana. 7 La a patro estas tajloro. b 

a The use of la here signifies a definite father; the father of 
whom we have been speaking; my father, your father, etc. 

b After esti in all its forms the noun is nominative. 


1 A father and a brother. 2 A lion is a beast. 
8 A rose is a flower, and a dove (or pigeon) is a 
bird. * The rose belongs to Theodore. 6 The sun 
shines. 6 (The) father is healthy. 7 (The) father 
is a tailor. 

The American Esperanto Book 83 


infano, child. ne, not. 

matura, mature, ripe, homo, man (general 
jam, already. for human being). 

plori, to mourn, weep. ĉielo, heaven, sky. 

blua, blue. kie, where. 

libro, book. krajono, pencil. 

sur, on, upon. tablo, table. 

kuŝi, to lie (down). fenestro, window. 

plumo, pen jen, lo, behold 

porno, apple. kiu, who. 

mi, /. trovi, to find. 

tero, earth. ŝtono, stone. 

n, ending of accusative (objective). 

is, verb ending, past tense. 

infano ne a estas matura homo b . 2 La infano 
jam c ne ploras. 3 La ĉielo estas blua. * Kie estas la 

a In Esperanto, the negative word precedes the verb, and 
usually precedes other words to which it belongs, though not 
always: tute ne=not quite; certe ne=eertai'nly not. 

b Homo, a human being, man in general; viro, a man; virino', 
a zvoman. 

c Jam ne=already not. Jam is used with much greater fre- 
quency than the word already in English, and it is well for 
the student carefully to study the sense wherever it is found. 

84 The American Esperanto Book 

libro kaj la krajono? 6 Lalibro estas sur d la tablo 
kaj la krajono kuŝas sur la fenestro. 6 Sur la fen- 
estro kuŝas krajono kaj plumo. 7 Jen e estas porno. 
8 Jen estas la pomo, kiun f mi trovis. 9 Sur la tero 
kuŝas Ŝtono. 

d See, in list of prepositions, the uses of sur. Esperanto 
prepositions require careful study. 

e Jen means behold. It translates with equal precision the 
English phrases here is and yonder is. 

f Kiun is here in the accusative (objective) case, being the 
object of trovis. Pomo is the subject of estas, which (See 
Note b, Exercise 5) cannot be followed by an accusative. To 
understand precisely why kiun is accusative, let us remember 
that it is a pronoun and stands for pomo. If we render the 
sentence Jen estas pomo, pomon mi trovis, the reason for the 
accusative becomes clearer. Kiu is frequently thus placed in 
accusative by verbs which follow it. 


1 A child is not a mature man. 2 The child no 
longer (already not) cries. 3 The sky is blue. 
ĥ Where are the book and the pencil? 6 The book is 
upon the table and the pencil lies upon the window. 
6 Upon the window lie a pencil and a pen. 7 Here 
is an apple. 8 Here is the apple which I found. 
9 On the ground lies a stone. 

American Esperanto Book 85 


forta, strong. dento, tooth. 

de, of, by, from. akra, sharp. 

doni, give. mano, hand. 

vidi, to see. resti, to stay, remain. 

kun, with. danĝero, danger. 

kuraĝa, brave, daring, rajdi, to ride. 

paroli, to speak. pri, about, concerning. 

j, sign of the plural. 

e, adverb ending. 

i, verb ending, infinitive mode. 

u, verb ending, imperative mode. 

1 Leono estas forta. 8 La dentoj de leono estas 
akraj a . 3 Al leono ne donu la manon. * Mi vidas 
leonon. 8 Resti b kun leono estas danĝere c . 6 Kiu 
kuraĝas rajdi sur leono? 7 Mi parolas pri leono. 

ft Observe that the adjective, akraj, is in the plural form, as 
the noun to which it refers is plural. 

b Infinitive verb; has no subject, no tense or time of action. 
For any person, at any time, to stay with a lion, is dangerous. 

c Here, the word danĝere takes the adverbial form (ending 
e) not because it is adverbial in sense, to be translated dan- 
gerously, but because it has no noun, the subject of this 
sentence being the verb, resti. Should we say leono estas 
danĝera, the adjective form would be used. 


1 A lion is strong. 2 The teeth of a lion are 
sharp. 3 Do not give your hand to a lion. * I see 
a lion. 6 To remain with a lion is dangerous. 
6 Who dares to ride on a lion? 7 I am speaking 
about a lion. 


American Esperanto Book 


bona, good. 
diri, to say. 
diligenta, dilige?it. 
veni, to come. 
filo, son. 

apud, near, close by. 
koni, to know (to be 
acquainted with). 
per, by means of. 
flari, to smell. 
antaŭ, before. 
arbo, tree. 

ĉapelo, hat. 
ke, that (conjunction), 
ami, to love. 
kune, together. 
stari, to stand. 
pur a, clean, pure. 
pano, bread. 
manĝi, to eat. 
buŝo, mouth. 
nazo, nose. 
domo, house. 
ĉambro, room. 

1 La a patro estas bona. 2 Jen kuŝas la ĉapelo de 
la patro. 3 Diru al b la patro, ke mi estas diligenta. 
*Miamas la patron. 5 Venu kune c kun la patro. 
6 La filo staras apud la patro. 7 La mano de Johano 
estas pura. 8 Mi konas Johanon. 9 Ludovicko, donu 
al d mi panon. 10 Mi manĝas per la buŝo kaj flaras 
per 6 la nazo. " Antaŭ la domo staras arbo. 12 La 
patro estas en la ĉambro. 

a See Note a, Exercise 5. 

b Diru al= Tell to. The preposition al is used in expressions 
such as speak to, recount to, etc. 

American Esperanto Book 87 

c Kune kun= Together zuith. Here, a word is repeated with 
no apparent purpose other than that of emphasis. This is 
often done with prepositions, especially in connection with 
verbs., See Note c, Exercise 31. 

d Note again that the preposition is followed by the nomina- 
tive case. Literally, this would read give to I bread. 'Panon 
is in the accusative case from the verb., donu. 

e Find, on Page 54, the proper uses of per. 


1 (The) father is good. 2 Here lies father's hat. 
3 Tell (to the) father that I am industrious. * I 
love (the) father. 5 Come with your father. 6 The 
son stands near the father. 7 John's hand is clean. 
8 1 know John. 9 Ludovick, give me [some] bread. 
10 1 eat with the [my] mouth and smell with the 
[my] nose. u Before the house stands a tree. 
12 The [my] father is in the room. 

It is suggested that the student review the pre- 
ceding exercises, read again all that is said about 
sounds and pronunciation in the beginning of this 
book and test his pronunciation by -tne rules. It 
is much easier to correct errors before they shall 
have become habits. 


American Esperanto Book 


flugi, to fly. 
agrabla, agreeable. 
car, because, for. 
voli, to wish, to will. 
knabo, boy. 
peli, pursue, chase out. 
okulo, eye. 
orelo, ear. 
tial, therefore. 
ricevi, to get, obtain. 
iri, to go. 
onklo, uncle. 
sed, but. 

kanti, to sing. 
akvo, water. 
ili, they. 
trinki, to drink. 
for, forth, out. 
ni, we. 
audi, to hear. 
lerni, to learn. 
bati, to beat. 
avo, grandfather. 
nun, now. 
legi, to read. 
li, he. 

letero, letter (missive) litero, letter(a,b,c, etc.) 
skribi, to write. 

*La birdoj flugas. 8 La kanto de a la birdoj 
estas agrabla. 3 Donu al la birdoj akvon, car ili 
volas trinki. * La knabo forpelis b la birdojn . 6 Ni 
vidas per la okuloj kaj aŭdas per la oreloj. fl Bonaj 
infanoj lernas diligente. 7 Aleksandro ne volas 
lerni, kaj tial mi batas Aleksandron. 8 De la patro 
mi ricevis libron, kaj de d la frato mi ricevis plu- 
9 Mi venas de la avo, kaj mi iras nun al la 


A?nerican Esperanto Book 89 

onklo. 10 Milegas libron. n La patro ne legas 
libron, sed li skribas e leteron. 

a The article here is used in a sense not known to English. 
It refers to birds generally — the song of birds. La is used 
with the plural form in speaking of a species or race: La 
birdoj, birds in general; la homoj, mankind in general. Of 
a science or trade, we use the singular form, with the article: 
Science, la scienco; medicitie, la medicino. 

b A preposition may thus be joined to any verb, modifying 
its meaning: Iri, to go; foriri, to leave, to go away; eniri, 
to enter, to go i?ito; preterm, to go J>ast. 

c The sign of the accusative case follows that of the plural. 

d De is translated by several English prepositions. See exam- 
ples of da and de, Page 50. 

e Skribas may be translated zvrites or is writing, according 
to sense. See The Verb, Indicative Mode. 


1 Birds fly. 2 The song of birds is pleasing. 
8 Give the birds water, as they wish to drink. *The 
boy drove away the birds. 5 We see with (by 
means of) the eyes and hear with the ears! 6 Good 
children learn diligently. 'Alexander does not 
want to learn, and therefore I beat Alexander. 
8 From the [my] father I received a book, and 
from the [my] brother I received a pen. 9 1 come 
from the [my] grandfather and am going now to 
the [my] uncle. 10 1 am reading a book. u Father 
is not reading a book, but he is writing a letter. 


The American Esperanto Book 


papero, paper. blanka, white» 

kajero, copy-book. juna, young, 

fraŭlo, unmarried man. fraŭlino, Miss, 

dole a, S7veet. 
mia, my. 
bela, beautiful. 
obstina, obstinate. 
vi, you. 

sinjoro, sir, Mr. 
ĝoji, to rejoice. 

rakonti, to tell % relate. 
amiko, friend. 
historic*, story, history. 
deziri, to desire. 
tago, day. 
mateno, morning. 
festi, to make a festival. 

kia, what kind, what a. hodiaŭ, today. 

en, in. 

nokto, night. 

pala, pale. 

stelo, star. 

pli, more. 

nutri, to nourish. 

vino, wine. 

freŝa, fresh. 

el, from, out from. 

plej, most. 

tiel, thus, so. 

kiel, as, how. sia, one's. 

saĝa, wise. 

in, suffix of the feminine. 

mal, prefix of contrary, opposite. 

hela, clear, glaring. 
nokto, night. 
luno, moon. 
neĝo, snow. 
lakto, milk. 
ol, than. 
havi, to have. 
erari, to err. 
ĉiu, each, every one. 
ĉiuj, all. 
si, oneself. 

Exercises g i 

1 Papero estas blanka. ? Blanka papero kuŝas 
sur la tablo. 3 La blanka papero jam a ne kuŝas sur 
la tablo. * Jen estas la kajero de b la juna fraŭlino. 
6 La patro donis al mi dolĉan pomon. 6 Rakontu 
al c mia juna amiko belan historion. 7 Mi ne amas 
obstinajn d homojn. 8 Mi deziras al vi bonan tagon, 
sinjoro ! 9 Bonan matenon e 1 10 Ĝojan feston ! (mi 
deziras al vi). n Kia goja festo 1 (estas hodiaŭ). 
12 Sur la Ĉielo staras la bela suno. 13 En la tago ni 
vidas la helan sunon, kaj en f la nokto ni vidas la 
palan lunon kaj la belajn stelojn. u La papero estas 
tre blanka, sed la e neĝo estas pli blanka. 15 Lakto 
estas pli nutra, ol vino. 16 Mi havas pli h freŝan 
panon, ol vi. 17 Ne, vi eraras, sinjoro ; via pano 
estas malpli freŝa, ol mia. 18 El i ĉiuj miaj infanoj 
Ernesto estas la plej juna. 19 Mi estas tiel forta, 
kiel 3 vi. 20 El ĉiuj siaj k fratoj Antono estas la mal- 
plej saĝa. 

a See Note c, Exercise 6. 

b Esperanto nouns form the possessive case with the help of 
the preposition de: La libro de la knabo= The boy's book. 

imperative mode, signifying, here, a command or request. 
This mode has other uses. See Page 34. 

d Adjectives agree with their nouns in number and case. 
There is an exception — see The Adjective. 

e Bonan matenon is accusative here, the verb being omitted, 
but understood. Mi deziras al vi bonan matenon=/ -wish you 
good morning. Bonan tagon \=Good day/ 

92 The American Esperanto Book 

f As in English, this preposition may be en {in) or dum 

g See Note a, Exercise 9. 

h See Comparison, Page 25. 

'El means of, out of, from among. 

ĵ Tiel kiel. These are correlative words, the first being 

demonstrative and the second relative. They are translated 
as as, so as, etc. 

k For full explanation of the uses of si, sin, sia, see Reflexive 
Pronoun, Page 27, and also examples in Exercise 18. 


1 Paper is white. 2 White paper lies upon the 
table. 8 The white paper no longer lies upon the 
table. * Here is the young lady's copy-book. 
6 Father gave me a sweet apple. 6 Tell my young 
friend a pretty story. 'I do not like obstinate people. 
8 1 wish you good day, sir 1 9 Good morning 1 10 A 
joyous festival 1 (I wish you). n What a jo} r ous 
festival! (there is today). 12 In (on) the sky 
stands the beautiful sun. 13 In the day we see the 
bright sun, and at night we see the pale moon and 
beautiful stars. u Paper is very white, but snow 
is whiter. 16 Milk is more nourishing than wine. 
16 1 have fresher bread than you. 17 No, you are 
wrong, sir ; your bread is less fresh than mine. 
18 Of all my children, Ernest is the youngest. 19 1 
am as strong as you. 20 Of all his [the] brothers, 
Anthony is the least wise. 

Exercises 93 


f e i no , fairy . unu , one. 

vidvo, widower. du, two. 

simila, like, similar. karaktero, character. 

vizaĝo, face. povi, can, to be able. 

pensi, to think. ambaŭ, both. 

fiera, proud. oni, one, people, they. 

vivi, to live. plena, full, complete. 

portreto, portrait. laŭ, according to. 

honesta, honest. krom, besides. 

ec, suffix denoting abstract quality: 
bona, good; boneco, goodness. 

La Feino 

1 Unu a vidvino havis du filinojn. 8 La pli mal- 
juna estis tiel simila al la patrino per sia karaktero 
kaj vizaĝo, ke ĉiu, kiu Sin vidis, povis pensi, ke li 

a Unu here is not an indefinite article, neither is it precisely- 
definite. In Exercise 12, Sentence 5, we have: El ŝiaj mul- 
taj infanoj, unuj estas bonaj=<9/* her many children, some 
[certain ones] are good. The good children receive more or 
less of definite identification from unuj. 

94 American Esperanto Book 

vidas la patrinon ; ili ambaŭ estis tiel malagrablaj b 
kaj tiel fieraj, ke oni ne povis vivi kun ili. 3 La 
pli juna nlino, kiu estis la plena portreto de sia 
patro laŭ sia boneco kaj honesteco, estis krom tio 
unu el la plej belaj knabinoj, kiujn oni povis trovi. 

b Mal always confers a directly opposite meaning. Although 
the more agreeable idea is usually expressed by the root word 
and the opposite by means of mal, it has no significance of 
bad: Alta, high, malalta, loiv; forta, strong, malforta, -weak. 


1 A certain widow had two daughters. a The 
older was so like her mother in character and face 
that every one who saw her might think that he 
saw (sees) the mother ; they were both so dis- 
agreeable and proud that one could not live with 
them. 3 The younger daughter, who was the exact 
image of her father in her goodness and honesty, 
was, in addition to that, one of the most beautiful 
girls that one could find. 




multe, much. 
nur, only. 
tri, three. 
ĉio, everything. 
fingro, finger. 
kvin, five. 
kvar, /<?#;\ 
mil, thousand. 
naŭ, a/af. 
minuto, minute. 

fari, /# *&>, A? make. 
promeni, to walk. 
hundo, a dog. 
dek, ten. 
alia, other. 
sep, seven, 
ok, eight, 
cent, hundred. 
ses, j/#. 
horo, /fo?w. 

konsisti (el), consist of sekundo, second. 
Januaro, January. monato, month. 

Aprilo, April. jaro, .y^r. 

Novembro, November, semajno, week. 
Decembro, December. Dio, God. 
Februaro, February 
ĝi, 0. 

krei, to create. 
Marto, March. 

it, sign of past participle: 

am-it-e, been loved. 

elekti, choose^ elect. 

sankta, holy. 

dato, date. 

naski, to bear, produce. 

1 Du homoj povas pli a multe b fari ol unu. 2 Mi 

a Pli multe ol=Literally, more much than. It should be 
remembered that pli is merely a word of comparison: Pli 
gr&nd&=larger, "more large"; pli ma\grsindsi=smaller, 
"more small.'' 

96 The American Esperanto Book 

havas nur unu buŝon, sed mi havas du orelojn. 
8 Li promenas kun tri hundoj. *Li faris ĉion per 
la dek fingroj de siaj c manoj. 5 El Ŝiaj multaj 
infanoj unuj d estas bonaj kaj aliaj estas malbonaj. 
6 Kvin kaj sep faras dek du. 7 Dek kaj dek faras 
dudek. 8 Kvar kaj dek ok faras dudek du. 9 Tri- 
dek kaj kvardek kvin faras sepdek kvin. 10 Mil okcent 
naŭdek tri. n Li havas dek unu infanojn. 12 Ses- 
dek minutoj faras unu horon, kaj unu minuto kon- 
sistas el e sesdek sekundoj. 13 Januaro estas la unua 
monato de la jaro, Aprilo estas la kvara, Novembro 
estas la dek-unua, Decembro estas la dek-dua. 
14 La dudeka (tago) de Februaro estas la kvindek- 
unua tago de la jaro. 15 La sepan tagon de la 
semajno Dio elektis, ke ĝi estu f pli sankta, ol la ses 
unuaj tagoj. 16 Kion Dio kreis en la sesa tago? 
17 Kiun daton g ni havas? 18 Hodiaŭ estas la dudek 
sepa tago de Marto. 19 Georgo Vaŝington estis 
naskita la dudek duan h de Februaro de la jaro mil 
sepcent tridek dua 1 . 

kThis use of multe is quite confusing to the beginner. The 
final e frequently has a neutral rather than an adverbial sense. 
Multaj birdoj, multo da birdoj and multe da birdoj all mean 
about the same, the adverbial form being most often used. 
This is similarly true of kelke da, which is used instead of 

Exercises 97 

c Be sure that you understand the use of this pronoun. See 
Reflexive Pro?ioun t Page 27. 

d See Note a, Exercise 11. 

e See El, Page 51. 

f Note that the imperative form is used in a subjunctive 
clause indicating purpose. See Imperative Mode, Page 34. 

*What date have we? Instead of Hovu old are you? the 
Esperanto query is What age have you ? 

h See Rides of the Grammar, XIV, Page 17. Neither sur 
{on), ĉe {at) nor en {in) expresses the sense, so we can use je 
or the accusative without a preposition. 

^he adjective ending denotes the ordinal numeral. We 
say, in English, Nineteen himdred and seven. In Esperanto 
the sense is always The nineteen-hundred-and-seventh. 


1 Two men can do more than one. 2 1 have only- 
one mouth, but I have two ears. 3 He takes a walk 
with three dogs. 4 He did everything with the ten 
fingers of his hands. 5 Of her many children, some 
are good and others are bad. ° Five and seven 
make twelve. 7 Ten and ten make twenty. 8 Four 
and eighteen make twenty-two. 9 Thirty and forty- 
five make seventy-five. 10 One thousand, eight 
hundred and ninety-three. n He has eleven chil- 
dren. 12 Sixty minutes make one hour, and one 
hour consists of sixty seconds. 13 January is the 

98 The American Esperanto Book 

first month of the year, April is the fourth, Novem- 
ber is the eleventh, December is the twelfth. 14 The 
twentieth day of February is the fifty-first day of 
the year. 15 The seventh day of the week God 
selected to be more holy than the first six days. 
16 What did God create on the sixth day? 17 What 
date is it (have we) today. 18 Today is the twenty- 
seventh day of March. 19 George Washington was 
born on the twenty-second day of February, in the 
year one thousand, seven hundred and thirty-two. 

Exercises 99 


daŭri, to continue, ordinara, ordinary* 

persono, a person, tiu, that, 

varma, warm, sama, same. 

tempo, time. teruro, terror. 

kontraŭ, against. devi, ought. 

kuiri, to cook. labori, to labor. 

sen, without. ĉesi, to cease. 

inter, between, among, afero, affair ; matter. 

ĉerpi, to draw. tre, very. 

proksima, near. loko, place. 

porti, to carry. kruĉo, pitcher. 

ig, suffix, meaning to cause to be : pura, pure ; 
purigi, purify. 

eg, suffix of increased degree : granda, large ; 
grandega, immense. 

ej, suffix indicating the place devoted to: lerni, 
to learn ; lernejo, a school. 

ad, suffix showing continued action : spiri, to 
breathe ; spirado, breathing. 

n, sign of accusative case. 

Ĉi, denotes proximity: tie, there ; tie ĉi, here"\ 
tio, that ; tio ĉi, this. 

fojo, "time": unu fojo, one time, once\ du fojoj, 

La Feino 

1 Car ĉiu amas ordinare personon, kiu estas 
simila al li a , tial tiu ĉi patrino varmege amis sian 
pli maljunan filinon, kaj en tiu b sama tempo Si 

ioo The American Esperanto Book 

havis teruran malamon kontraŭ la pli juna. 2 ŝi 
devigis ŝin manĝi en la kuirejo kaj laboradi sen- 
ĉese. 3 Inter aliaj aferoj tiu ĉi malfeliĉa infano 
devis du fojojn d en ĉiu tago iri ĉerpi akvon en tre 
malproksima loko kaj alporti domen 6 plenan 
grandan kruĉon. 

a Li, here, and not si, because if si were used it would refer 
to kiu, which is the subject of this clause, and again refers to 
persono, the person who is loved. In the same sentence sian 
is used because it refers to the subject of the phrase in which 
it appears. 

kTiu sama tempo= That same time. Esperanto often uses 
a demonstrative adjective or pronoun instead of la. 

c Malamon kontTaŭ=Hatred against. In a similar sense we 
would use, in English, for or toward. 

d Accusative because an implied preposition is omitted. Je 
du fojoj=i^or tzvo times. This is also written dufoje. 

e Domen; literally, housezvardly. Again we see the ready 
use of the adverbial form. Were the noun, domon used here 
it might mean that the poor girl, in addition to her other bur- 
dens, was carrying the house I Domen has the accusative end- 
ing to show direction — toward the house. See Rule XIII. 

The Fairy ( Continued ) 

1 As every one ordinarily loves a person who is 
like him [self] , therefore this mother ardently loved 
her elder daughter, and at the same time she had 
a terrible hatred against the younger. 2 She com- 
pelled her to eat in the kitchen and to work inces- 
santly. 8 Among other things this unhappy child 
had to go, twice every day, to draw water in a very 
distant place, and carry home, full, a large pitcher. 

Exercises ioi 


urbo, town. loĝi, to lodge, reside. 

aĉeti, to buy. aŭ, or. 

kulero, spoon. forko, fork. 

re, back, again. mono, money. 

danki, to thank. por, for. 

peti, request, ask. ankaŭ, also. 

post, after, behind. kiam, when. 

bezoni, to need, want, pagi, to pay. 

ŝtofo, goods, stuff. kosti, to cost. 

ĉiam, always. ĵeti, to throw. 

venki, to conquer. paĝo, page. 

se, if. fini, to end, to finish. 

tuta, whole, entire. 

da, of; used after words expressing weight or 

prunti, to lend or borrow ; prunte doni, to give 
as a loan ; prunte preni, to lake as a loan. 

ant, ending of active participle, present tense : 
amante, loving, being now loving. 

obi, .fold-, duobla, twofold, double. 

op, suffix of collective numeral : duope, by or 
in twos ; two together. 

on, suffix of fractionals : duono, half. 

1 Mi havas cent pomojn. 2 Mi havas centon a da 
pomoj. 3 Tiu ĉi urbo havas milionon da loĝanto<j. 

a Centon. The cardinal numerals are not changed. When 
we say cento, milo, dekduo, etc., we have substantives, which 
take the regular case and number changes. The two forms 
are used interchangeably. Mil homoj, milo da homoj, are 
both correct. 

io2 The American Esperanto Book 

* Mi aĉetis dekduon (aŭ dek-duon) da kuleroj kaj 
du dekduojn da forkoj. 5 Mil jaroj (aŭ milo da 
jaroj) faras miljaron. 6 Unue mi redonas al vi la 
monon, kiun vi pruntis al mi ; due mi dankas vin 
por la prunto ; trie b mi petas vin ankaŭ poste 
prunti al mi, kiam mi bezonos monon. 7 Por ĉiu 
tago mi ricevas kvin frankojn, sed por la hodiaŭa 
tago mi ricevis duoblan pagon, t. e. (=tio estas) 
dek frankojn. 8 Kvinoble c sep estas tridek kvin. 
9 Tri estas duono de ses. 10 Ok estas kvar kvinonoj 
de dek. " Kvar metroj da d tiu ĉi ŝtofo kostas naŭ 
frankojn ; tial du metroj kostas kvar kaj duonon 
frankojn (aŭ da frankoj). 12 Unu tago estas tri- 
cent-sesdek-kvinono au tricent-sesdek-sesono de 
jaro. 13 Tiuj ĉi du amikoj promenas ĉiam duope 6 . 
14 Kvinope ili sin ĵetis sur min, sed mi venkis la 
kvin atakantojn. 15 Por miaj kvar infanoj mi aĉetis 
dek du pomojn, kaj al ĉiu el la infanoj mi donis po f 
tri pomoj. 16 Tiu ĉi libro havas sesdek paĝojn ; 
tial, se mi legos g en ĉiu tago po dek kvin paĝoj, 
mi iinos la tutan libron en kvar tagoj. 

b Note the addition of e to form adverbial ordinals: Unue, 
due, trie= Firstly, secondly, thirdly. 

c Suf£x of multiplication, -obi-: Unuobla, single, duobla, 
double. See again the use of the adverbial ending. This has 
a neutral significance (Note b, Exercise 12). Kvinoble sep 
has a noun value and is the subject of the sentence. 

Exercises 103 

d Da. This preposition, translated of, is used with words 
indicating quantity, weight, measure, etc. See Da, De, P. 50. 

e The collective suffix of Esperanto has no exact English 
equivalent. Duope, triope=^ > >' tzvos, by threes. 

f Po means at the rate of. For distinction between po and 
por, see Page 55. 

SHere, although the sentence is conditional in sense, the 
conditional mode is not used. After se, the endings as, os 
and is are frequently used. 


1 1 have one hundred apples. 2 1 have a hundred 
"of" apples. 8 This city has a million of inhab- 
itants. 3 1 bought a dozen spoons and two dozen 
forks. 6 A thousand years (or, a thousand 'of years) 
make a millenium. 6 First, I return to you the 
money which you lent me ; second, I thank you for 
the loan ; third, I ask you also to lend to me after- 
wards, when I shall need money. 7 For each day I 
receive five francs, but for today I receive double 
pay, that is, ten francs. 8 Five times seven is 
thirty-five. 9 Three is half of six. 10 Eight is four- 
fifths of ten. "Four meters of this material 
cost nine francs ; therefore two meters cost four 
and a half francs (or of francs). 12 One day is a 

104 The American Esperanto Book 

three- hundred-and-sixty-fifth, or a three-hundred- 
and-sixty-sixth, of a year. 13 These two friends 
always walk (two) together. " Five together they 
threw themselves upon me, but I overcame all five 
assailants. 15 For my four children I bought twelve 
apples, and to each of them I gave at the rate of 
three apples. 16 This book has sixty pages ; there- 
fore, if I read at the rate of fifteen pages every 
day, I shall finish the entire book in four days. 

Exercises 105 


fonto, source. riĉa, rich 

volonte, willingly. tuj, immediately. 

lavi, to wash. sub, under, beneath. 

teni, to hold, grasp. oportuna, opportune. 
trankvila, quiet. soifi, to thirst. 

donaci, make a present, preni, to take. 
preni, to take. formo, form. 

vilaĝo, village. ĝentila, polite. 

ĉe, at. 
viro, a man. This word is used as a suffix to 
designate the male of animals : bovviro, kokviro. 

La Feino (Daŭrigo). 

1 En unu a tago, kiam Ŝi estis apud tiu fonto, 
venis al Ŝi malriĉa virino, kiu petis Ŝin, ke si donu 
al ŝi b trinki c . 2 "Tre volonte, mia bona," diris la 

a See Note a, Exercise 11. Here, in both Esperanto and 
English, we do not use one in a numerical sense, but as a 
semi-definite article. 

b Five times in this sentence ŝi occurs. At first, the student 
might think that si could be substituted somewhere, but observe 
that in each instance the action or thought passes from one 
person to the other : The zvoman came to the girl and asked 
the girl that the girl give a drink to the woman. 

io6 The American Esperanto Book 

bela knabino. 3 Kaj Ŝi tuj lavis sian d kruĉon kaj 
ĉerpis akvon en la plej pura loko de la fonto kaj 
alportis e al la virinon, ĉiam subtenante f la kruĉon, 
por ke la virino povu trinki pli oportune. *Kiam 
la bona virino trankviligis sian soifon, si diris al 
la knabino: "Vi estas tiel bela, tiel bona kaj tiel 
honesta, ke mi devas fari al vi donacon" (car tio 
ĉi estis feino, kiu prenis sur sin la formon de mal- 
riĉa vilaĝa virino, por ff vidi, kiel granda estos al 
ĝentileco de tiu ĉii juna knabino). 5 "Mi faras al 
vi donacon," daŭrigis la feino, "ke ĉe h Ĉiu vorto, 
kiun vi diros, el via buŝo eliros aŭ floro aŭ 1 multe- 
kosta Ŝtono." 

c That she give her to drink. This use of the infinitive, 
though once common in the English, is now obsolete, and 
represents a peculiarity of Esperanto which the student should 

d Here, sian, the reflexive pronoun which always refers to 
the subject of the clause, is properly used : The girl washed 
the girts pitcher. 

e See Note c, Exercise 8. 

f The use of the adverbial ending here supports our previous 
statements that this frequently has a neutral significance. 
When the participle is directly qualifying it is adjectival: 
fluanta akvo=/lozving zvater. When it is a part of the 
predicate, preceded by some form of esti, it is adjectival : 
La akvo estas fluanta= The cuater isJiozvi?tg. When, how- 
ever, it refers to the noun, yet is not connected with it in 

Exercises 107 

either of these ways, it is adverbial : Fluante, akvo sin 
purigas=:(When)^ozfz*w < ^-, zvater furifies itself. 

g For to see, for to do, etc., are forms of expression often 
used. Por means in order to, for the purpose of. 

h See uses of ĉe, Page 49. 

'Observe use of aŭ 3iŭ=either or. 

The Fairy (Continued) 

1 One day, when she was near the spring, there 
came to her a poor woman, who asked her that she 
give her a drink. 2 ' 'Very willingly, my good 
[woman]," said the beautiful girl. 3 And she at 
once washed her pitcher and drew water in the 
cleanest place in the spring and carried [it] to the 
woman, all the time holding the pitcher, in order that 
the woman could drink more conveniently. 4 When 
the good woman had quieted her thirst, she said to 
the girl: "You are so beautiful, so good and so 
honest, that I must make you a gift" (for this was 
a fairy, who had taken upon herself the form of a 
poor village woman, to see how great would be the 
politeness of this young girl). '"I make you a 
gift, continued the fairy, "that at every word which 
you say there shall come out of your mouth either 
a flower or a precious stone." 

io8 American Esperanto Book 


ci, thou. anstataŭ, instead of. 

uzi, to use. tranĉi, to cut. 

ruso, a Russian. ĝardeno, a garden. 

voki, to call. fidela, faithful. 

vero, truth. vintro, winter. 

hejti, to heat. forno, stove. 

il, suffix indicating tool or instrument : tranĉi, 
to cut; tranĉilo, a knife. 

1 Mi legas a . 2 Ci skribas (anstataŭ ci oni uzas 
ordinare vi). 3 Li estas knabo, kaj Si estas kna- 
b>ino. * La tranĉilo tranĉas bone, ĉar ĝi estas akra. 
6 Ni estas homoj. 6 Vi estas infanoj. 7 Hi estas 
rusoj. 8 Kie b estas la knaboj? 9 Hi estas en la 
ĝardeno. 10 Kie estas la knabinoj? u Ili ankaŭ 
estas en la ĝardeno. 12 Kie estas la tranĉiloj? 13 Ili 
kuŝas sur la tablo. u Mi vokas la knabon, kaj li 
venas. 15 Mi vokas la knabinon, kaj Ŝi venas. 
16 La infano ploras, ĉar ĝi c volas manĝi. 17 La 
infanoj ploras, car ili volas manĝi. 18 Knabo, vi 
estas neĝentila. d 19 Sinjoro, vi estas neĝentila. 
20 Sinjoroj, vi estas neĝentilaj. 21 Mia hundo, vi 
estas tre fidela. 22 Oni e diras, ke la vero ĉiam 
venkas. 23 En la vintro oni hejtas la fornojn. 
2 *Kiam oni estas riĉa (aŭ riĉaj) oni havas multajn f 

Exercises 109 

a See uses of the present tense, page 30. 

b Kie may have either an interrogatory or relative sense : 
Iru kie gloro vin atendas=Co where glory zvaits thee 

c As in English, it (ĝi) is used with reference to a child, 
when unnecessary to specify sex. 

d Ne has only a neutral significance and does not mean, 
like mal, the direct opposite. Here, the sense is that the boy 
is not polite, though not necessarily that he is rude. 

e Oni translates the English one or they in such sentences 
as one ought, they say, etc. As the author indicates (Sentence 
24), it may be followed by a plural adjective if the sense 
requires this. Oni is always nominative, its accusative and 
possessive being reflexive, sin, sia : Oni devas sin gardi 
rilate sian reputacion=<9;ze ought to zuatch himself -with 
respect to his refutation. 

f See Note b, exercise 12. 

1 1 am reading. 2 Thou art writing — instead of 
ci (thou) we ordinarily use vi (you). 3 He is a 
boy, and she is a girl. * The knife cuts well, for 
it is sharp. 6 We are men. 6 You are children. 
7 They are Russians. 8 Where are the boys? 
9 They are in the garden. 10 Where are the girls ? 
11 They also are in the garden. 12 Where are the 
knives? 13 They lie upon the table. 14 1 call the 
boy, and he comes. 15 1 call the girl, and she 
comes ? 16 The child cries because it wants to eat. 

17 The children cry, because they wish to eat. 

18 Boy, you are impolite. 19 Sir, you are impolite. 
20 Sirs, you are impolite. 21 My dog, you are very 
faithful. * 2 They say that truth always conquers. 
23 In the winter they heat the stoves. 2i When one 
is rich, one has many friends. 

no The American Esperanto Book 


insulti, to insult. kial, why, wherefore. 

frue, early. pardoni, to forgive. 

longa, long. salti, to leap, jump. 

perlo, pearl. granda, great, large. 

diamanto, diamond. miri, to wonder. 

ŝajni, to seem. nomi, to name. 

naiva, naive. okazi, to happen. 

dum, during, while. sendi, to send. 
kapabla, capable. 

La Feino (Daŭrigo) 

1 Kiam tiu ĉi bela knabino venis domen, ŝia 
patrino insultis a ŝin, kial ŝi revenis tiel malfrue de 
la fonto. 2 "Pardonu al mi, patrino," diris la mal- 
feliĉa knabino, "ke mi restis tiel longeV' 3 Kaj 
kiam ŝi parolis tiujn ĉi vortojn, elsaltis c el Ŝia buŝo 
tri rozoj, tri perloj kaj tri grandaj diamantoj. 
4 "Kion mi vidas!" diris Ŝia patrino kun grandega 
miro. 5 "Ŝajnas al mi, ke el ŝia buŝo elsaltas perloj 
kaj diamantoj ! 6 De kio tio ĉi venas, mia filino?" 
7 (Tio ĉi estis la unua fojo, ke Ŝi nomis Sin sia 
filino). 8 Lamalfeliĉa infano rakontis al Si naive 
ĉion, kio okazis al ŝi, kaj, dum si parolis, elfalis el 

Exercises in 

Ŝia buŝo multego da diamantoj. 8 "Se estas tiel," 
diris la patrino, "mi devas tien d sendi mian filinon. 
10 Marinjo, rigardu, kio eliras el la buŝo de via 
fratino, kiam Ŝi parolas ; ĉu e ne estus al vi agrable 
havi tian saman kapablon? n Vi devas nur iri al 
la fonto ĉerpi akvon ; kaj kiam malriĉa virino petos 
de vi trinki, vi donos ĝin al Ŝi gentile." 

a Insultis ŝin kial — literally, insulted her zvhy. In English 
insult would not be the proper word, though obviously the 
writer intends to express a humiliating invasion of the girl's 
dignity and "feelings." 

b Longe is adverbial, there being no noun to which it could 
be joined. If we say dum tia longa tempo, the adjective is 
of course properly used. 

c See Note e, Exercise 8. 

d Accusative sign for direction. It is not proper to refer to 
words of direction as in the "accusative case," as it is seen 
that adverbs may have this ending. 

e ĉu {whether) is the sign of the question, when no other 
word indicates it. Kie vi estas ?= Where are you? Here, 
kie indicates the question. Cu vi estas en la ĜQvs\oi=Are 
you in the house? 


The Fairy ( Continued ) 

1 When this beautiful girl went home, her mother 
insultingly asked (insulted) her why she returned 

ii2 The American Esperanto Book 

so late from the spring. !< 'Pardon me, mother," 
said the unhappy girl, "for staying so long." 
8 And when she spoke these words [there] leaped 
from her mouth three roses, three pearls and three 
large diamonds. *"What do I see !" said her mother 
in intense wonder. 5 "lt seems to me that from her 
mouth leap out pearls and diamonds! 6 Whence 
(from what) comes this thing, my daughter?" 
7 (This was the first time that she [had] called her 
her daughter). 8 The unhappy child told her art- 
lessly all that [had] happened to her, and while 
she was speaking [there] fell out of her mouth a 
great number of diamonds. "If it be so," said 
the mother, "I must send my daughter there. 
10 Molly, look what comes out of your sister's mouth 
when she speaks ; would it not be pleasing to you 
to have the same capability? n You need only go 
to the spring to draw water, and when a poor 
woman asks of you [a] to drink, you will give it 
to her politely." 

Exercises 113 


kuri, to run. vespero, evening. 

ĉu, whether. edzo, husband. 

montri, to show. nova, new. 

vesti, to clothe. mem, self. 

zorgi, care, be anxious, gardi, to watch. 

gasto, guest. akompani, accompany. 

ĝis, up to, until. serĉi, to search. 

pupo, doll. forgesi, to forget. 
facila, easy. 

*Li amas min, sed mi lin ne amas. 2 Mi volis 
lin bati, sed li forkuris de mi. 3 Diru al mi vian 
nomon. 4 Ne skribu al mi tiajn longajn leterojn. 
5 Venu al mi hodiaŭ a vespere. 6 Mi rakontos al vi 
historion. 7 Ĉu b vi diros al mi la veron? 8 La 
domo apartenas al li. 9 Li estas mia onklo, car 
mia patro estas lia frato. 10 Sinjoro Petro kaj lia 
edzino tre c amas miajn infanojn ; mi ankaŭ tre 

a Together with tomorrow evening, yesterday morning, 
etc., Esperanto has today morning and today evening. 

b See Note e, Exercise 17. 

c Tre, rendered very, modifies verbs directly, while in 
English we would use another adverb — very greatly, very 
much, etc. 

114 The American Esperanto Book 

amas iliajn (infanojn). n Montru al mi vian novan 
veston. 12 Mi amas min mem d , vi amas vin mem 
li amas sin mem, kaj ĉiu homo amas sin mem 
13 Mia frato diris al Stefano, ke li amas lin pli, ol s 
mem. " Mi zorgas pri Ŝi tiel, kiel mi zorgas pri 
mi mem ; sed Ŝi mem tute ne zorgas pri si e kaj 
tute sin ne gardas. " Miaj fratoj havis hodiaŭ 
gastojn ; post la vespermanĝo niaj fratoj eliris kun 
la gastoj el sia domo kaj akompanis ilin ĝis ilia 
domo. 16 Mi jam havas mian ĉapelon ; nun serĉu 
vi vian. 17 Mi lavis min en mia ĉambro, kaj Si 
lavis sin en sia ĉambro. 18 La infano serĉis sian 
pupon ; mi montris al la infano, kie kuŝas ĝia pupo. 
19 Oni ne forgesas facile sian unuan amon. 

d Mem means self in the sense of personality, and can be 
used with the personal pronouns. 

e Here, si and sin refer back to ŝi: she does not care 
about herself. Examine carefully all sentences using si, sia, 
and sin, comparing them with the accompanying translations. 


1 He loves me, but I do not love him. 8 I wished 
to beat him, but he ran away from me. s Tell me 
your name. *Do not write me such long letters. 

Exercises 115 

6 Come to me [my house] this evening. 6 1 will 
tell you a story. 7 Will you tell me the truth? 
8 The house belongs to him. 9 He is my uncle, for 
my father is his brother. 10 Mr. Peter and his wife 
love my children very much ; I also love theirs 
very much. " Show me your new coat. 12 1 love 
myself, you love yourself, he loves himself, and 
every man loves himself. 13 My brother told 
Stephen that he loves him more than himself. 
14 1 take care of her as I care for myself ; but she 
takes no care at all of herself and does not guard 
herself at all. 15 My brothers had guests today ; 
after the evening meal our brothers went out of 
their (the brothers') house with the guests and 
accompanied them to their (the guests') house. 
16 1 already have my hat ; now you look for yours. 
17 1 washed myself in my room and she washed 
herself in her room. 18 The child was looking for 
its doll ; I showed the child where its doll lay. 
19 One does not easily forget one's first love. 

n6 The A?nerican Esperanto Book 


murmuri, to murmur, vazo, vase. 

arĝento, silver. apenaŭ, scarcely. 

princo, prince. certa, certain, sure. 

speciala, special. opinio, opinion. 

koleri, to be angry. servi, to serve. 

serpento, serpent. rano, frog. 

us, ending of verbs, conditional mode. 

ar, suffix of collective : Ŝtupo, step ; ŝtuparo, 
stairs ; arbo, tree ; arbaro, forest. 

em, suffix showing a tendency or inclination: 
babili, to chatter ; babilema, talkative. 

La Feino (Daŭrigo) 

^'Estus tre bele a ," respondis la filino malĝentile, 
"ke mi iru al la fonto 1 " 2 "Mi volas ke vi tien 
iru b ," diris la patrino, "kaj iru tuj." 3 La filino 
iris, sed ĉiam murmurante. *ŝi prenis la plej belan 
arĝentan vazon, kiu estis en la loĝejo. 6 Apenaŭ Ŝi 
venis al la fonto, Si vidis unu sinjorinon, tre riĉe 
vestitan c , kiu eliris el la arbaro kaj petis de Ŝi trinki 
(tio ĉi estis tiu sama feino, kiu prenis sur sin la 
formon kaj vestojn de princino, por vidi, kiel 

Exercises 117 

granda estos d la malboneco detiu ĉi knabino). 6 "Ĉu 
mi venis tien ĉi," diris al Ŝi la malĝentila kaj fiera 
knabino, "por doni al vi trinki? 7 Certe, mi 
alportis arĝentan vazon speciale por tio, por e doni 
trinki al tiu ĉi sinjorino ! 8 Mia opinio estas: prenu 
mem akvon, se vi volas trinki." 9 "Vi tute ne 
estas ĝentila," diris la feino sen kolero. 10 "Bone, 
car vi estas tiel servema, mi faras al vi donacon, 
ke ĉe ĉiu vorto, kiun vi diros, eliros el via buŝo 
aŭ serpento aŭ rano." 

a Be sure that you understand why the adverbial form is 
used. See Note c, Exercise 7, and Adverbial Ending, P. 25. 

b Imperative mode in a subjunctive clause. See Page 34. 

c Vestitan, though following the substantive to which it 
belongs (sinjorinon), is considered directly qualifying — a very 
richly-dressed lady. If between the substantive and participle 
there intervened any form of esti, the participle would be 

d Estos instead of estus. See Note g , Exercise 14. 

e See Note h, Exercise 12. 

The Fairy ( Continued ) 

1 "It would be very fine," replied the daughter 
rudely, '*for me to (that I should) go to the 

n8 The American Esperanto Book 

spring." * "I want you to go there," said the 
mother, "and go at once !" 3 The daughterwent, 
but grumbling all the time. 4 She took the most 
beautiful silver vase that was in the house. 6 She 
had scarcely reached the spring [when] she saw 
a lady, very richly dressed, who came out of the 
forest and asked her for a drink (this was that 
same fairy, who had taken upon herself the form 
and dress of a princess, to see how great would be 
the badness of this girl). 6 "Did I come here," said 
to her the rude and proud girl, ' 'to give you a drink ? 
7 Certainly, I brought a silver vase especially (for 
that) to give a drink to this lady ! 8 My opinion is, 
take the water yourself, if you wish to drink." 
"'You are not at all polite," said the fairy, without 
anger. 10 "Well, since you are so obliging, I make 
you the gift that at every word you (shall) say, 
from your mouth shall come either a snake or a 

Exercises 1 1 9 


sidi, to sit. silenti, to be silent. 

hieraŭ, yesterday. renkonti, to meet. 

saluti, greet, salute. . sabato, Saturday. 

morgaŭ, tomorrow. dimanĉo, Sunday. 

vendredo, Friday. lundo, Monday. 

viziti, to visit. kuzo, cousin. 

plezuro, pleasure. horloĝo, clock. 

timi, to fear. dormi, to sleep. 

veki, to wake. scii, to know. 

leciono, lesson. instrui, to teach» 

puni, to punish. surda, deaf. 

muta, mute. tuŝi, to touch. 

spegulo, mirror. kara, dear. 
ordoni, order, command, babili, to chatter. 

kandelo, candle. gaja, gay, glad. 

danci, to dance. morti, to die. 

petoli, to be mischievous. 

uj, suffix indicating that which contains : ruso, 
a Russian ; Rusujo, Russia ; cigarujo, cigar-case. 

1 Nun mi legas a , vi legas kaj li legas ; ni ĉiuj 
legas. 2 Vi skribas, kaj la infanoj skribas ; ili ĉiuj 
sidas silente kaj skribas. 3 Hieraŭ mi renkontis 
vian fllon, kaj li gentile salutis min. * Hodiaŭ 

a Note again the use of the simple verb, legas, where in 
English we would say am reading. 

I20 The Attierican Esperanto Book 

estas sabato, kaj morgaŭ estos dimanĉo. 6 Hieraŭ 
estis vendredo, kaj post-morgaŭ estos lundo. 
6 Antaŭ tri tagoj b mi vizitis vian kuzon, kaj mia vizito 
faris c al li plezuron. 7 Ĉu vi jam trovis vian hor- 
loĝon? 8 Mi ĝin ankoraŭ ne serĉis ; kiam mi finos 
mian laboron, mi serĉos mian horloĝon, sed mi 
timas, ke mi ĝin jam d ne trovos. 9 Kiam mi venis 
al li, li dormis ; sed mi lin vekis. 10 Se mi estus e 
sana, mi estus e feliĉa. n Se li scius 6 , ke mi estas 
tie ĉi, li tuj venus e al mi. 12 Se la lernanto scius 
bone sian lecionon, la instruanto lin ne punus. 
13 Kial vi ne respondas al mi ? " ĉu vi estas surda 
aŭ muta? 15 Iru for ! 16 Infano, ne tuŝu la spegu- 
lon ! 17 Karaj infanoj, estu ĉiam honestaj 1 18 Li 
venu, kaj mi pardonos al li. 19 Ordonu al li, ke li 
ne babilu. 20 Petu Sin, ke Si sendu al mi kandelon. 
21 Ni estu f gajaj, ni uzu bone la vivon, car la vivo 
ne estas longa. 22 ŝi volas danci. 23 Morti pro la 
patrujo estas agrable g . 2i La infano ne ĉesas 

b This does not mean before three days, but three days 
ago. See Antaŭ, Pp. 48, 49. 

c Fari is usually translated to make, to do. Here, it means 
give, analogous with our English use of make when we say 
"make you a present." 

d Jam, translated already, is used in this sentence where no 
such word would be required in English, and its significance 
can best be understood by a careful study of its uses in these 
Exercises. See Note c, Lesson 6. 

e Mr. Bullen, in his Standard Course of Esperanto, 
says: "This sentence should be carefully noted, as it illus- 
trates the fact that Esperanto always uses the conditional in 
-us, where a real condition or supposition (that is, that the 

Exercises 121 

fact is non-existent) is implied." We observe here that both 
verbs are conditional: If I zuere healthy (but I am not) 
I should be haffiy (but I am not). 

f Note the various uses of the imperative in this Exercise. 
In English, the imperative is used for direct command or 
entreaty, but in Esperanto we have mi iru, ni iru, etc. 

g See Note c, Exercise 7. 

1 Now I am reading, you are reading ; we are 
are all reading. 2 You are writing, and the children 
write ; they all sit silently and write. 3 Yesterday 
I met your son and he greeted me politely. * Today 
is Saturday and tomorrow will be Sunday. 5 Yes- 
terday was Friday, and the day after tomorrow 
will be Monday. 6 Three days ago I visited your 
cousin, and my visit gave him pleasure. ' Have 
you already found your clock ? 8 1 have not yet 
looked for it ; when I finish my work I shall look 
for my clock, but I fear that I shall not find it. 
9 When I came to him he was sleeping, but I awoke 
him. 10 If I were well, I should be happy. "If 
he knew that I am here, he would come to me at 
once. 12 If the pupil knew his lesson well, the 
teacher would not punish him. 13 Why do you not 
answer me ? " Are you deaf or dumb ? 15 Go 
away ! 16 Child, do not touch the mirror 1 " Dear 
children, be always honest. 18 Let him come, and 
I will forgive him. 19 Order him not to chatter. 
20 Ask her to send me a candle. 21 Let us be joyful, 
let us use life well, for life is not long. 22 She 
wishes to dance. 23 To die for one's country is 
pleasant. 24 The child does not cease to be mis- 

122 The American Esperanto Book 


rimarki, remark, notice krii, to cry, 

nu ! well ! jes, yes. 

kulpa, blameable. kaŝi, to hide, conceal. 

reĝo, king. ĉasi, to hunt. 

demandi, demand, ask. sola, alone. 

pro, for the sake of. ho ! oh! 

ve ! woe! ho ve ! alas! 

ek denotes sudden or momentary action : krii, 
to cry ; ekkrii, to cry out. 

La Feino (Daŭrigo). 

1 Apenau Ŝia patrino Ŝin rimarkis, Ŝi kriis al Ŝi: 
"Nu, mia filino?" 2 "jes, patrino," respondis al 
Ŝi la malĝentilulino a , elĵetante unu serpenton kaj 
unu ranon. 8 "Ho, Ĉielo!" ekkriis la patrino, 
"kion mi vidas? 4 ŝia fratino en ĉio estas kulpa; 
mi pagos al ŝi por tio ĉi 1 " 6 Kaj Si tuj kuris bati 
Ŝin. *La malfeliĉa infano forkuris kaj kaŝis sin en 
la plej proksima arbaro. 7 La filo de la reĝo, kiu 
revenis de ĉaso, Sin renkontis ; kaj, vidante, ke Ŝi 
estas tiel bela, li demandis Ŝin, kion Ŝi faras b tie 
Ĉi tute sola, kaj pro kio Ŝi ploras. "Ho ve, 
sinjoro, mia patrino forpelis min el la domo." 

Exercises 123 

a In this word we have our first combination of two suffixes. 
There is no limit to the combination of these so long as the 
meaning is clear. Here, the meaning is opposite-polite-per- 
son-feminine — a rude girl or woman. 

b Faras. This word is in the present tense, although the 
time referred to is past. See The Present Tense, Page 30. 

The Fairy (Continued) 

1 Scarcely had her mother observed her [when] 
she cried to her : "Well, my daughter?" 2 "Yes, 
mother, ' ' replied to her the rude one, throwing 
out a snake and a frog. 3 "Oh heaven ! " exclaimed 
the mother, "what do I see? * Her sister is to 
blame for everything ; I will pay her for this 1 " 
5 And she immediately ran to beat her. 6 The 
unhappy child ran away and hid herself in the 
nearest forest. 7 The king's son, who was returning 
from a hunt, met her ; and observing that she was 
so beautiful, he asked her what she was (is) doing 
here all alone, and for what she was crying. 
"'Alas, sir, my mother drove me from the house." 

Review the preceding Exercises, reading aloud 
the Esperanto text. Learn to think in Esperanto, 
grasping the idea from the Esperanto word, with 
no thought of English. Memorize the ideas of the 
vocabularies, not the definitions. 

124 The American Esperanto Book 


flui, to flow. movi, to move. 

strato, street. fali, to fall. 

peki, to sin. intend, to intend. 

levi, to lift, raise. riproĉi, to reproach. 

meriti, to merit. mensogi, to tell a lie. 

pasi, to pass. neniam, never. 

neniu, nobody. atendi, to wait, expect. 

savi, to save. mondo, world. 

lingvo, language. grava, important, grave. 

pasero, a sparrow. kapti, to catch. 

agio, eagle. soldato, soldier. 

juĝi, to judge, try. konduki, to conduct. 

aresti, to arrest. tra, through. 

at, sign of present passive participle : amate, 
being loved. 

int, sign of the past active participle : aminte, 
having loved. 

ont, sign of future active participle : amonte, 
being about to love. 

ot, sign of future passive participle : amote, 
being about to be loved. 

1 Fluanta akvo estas pli pura ol akvo staranta 
senmove. 2 Promenante a sur b la strato, mi falis. 
8 Kiam Nikodemo batas Jozefon, tiam Nikodemo 

Exercises 125 

estas la batanto c kaj Jozefo estas la batato. *A1 
homo, pekinta d senintence, Dio facile pardonas. 
5 Trovinte pomon, mi ĝin manĝis. 6 La falinta 
homo ne povis sin levi. 7 Ne riproĉu vian amikon, 
car vi mem pli multe meritas riproĉon ; li estas nur 
unufoja 6 mensoginto, dum vi estas ankoraŭ nun 

a Adverbial ending, because not directly connected with 
the subject. See Note/", Exercise 15. 

b Observe use of preposition sur. 

c See Substantival Participle, Page 40. 

d This participle is adjectival in form, not because it mod- 
ifies homo directly — an unintentionally-sinning man — but 
because it is predicative, kiu estas being omitted ; in English, 
a man who has simied unintentionally. But if kiu were 
the subject of a verb other than estas, then the participle 
would stand detached, and take the adverbial ending : Al 
homo kiu, pekinte senintence, pentas, Dio facile pardonas= 
The man zvho, having sinned unintentio?ially t repents, 
God readily pardons. 

e Literally, a one-time person-zvho-has-lied. The person 
referred to has told a lie, therefore the past form, -into. In 
the same sentence, mensoganto is in the present form because 
it refers to some one who is a general liar ; as the person 
speaking tells him, v/ith commendable candor, a stilly nozv, 
all-t he-time liar. 

1 26 The American Esperanto Book 

ĉiam mensoganto. 8 La tempo pasinta f jam neniam 
revenos ; la tempon venontan neniu ankoraŭ konas. 
9 Venu, ni atendas vin, Savonto de la mondo. 10 En 
la lingvo "Esperanto" ni vidas la estontan lingvon 
de la tuta mondo. n Aŭgusto estas mia plej amata 
filo. 12 Mono havata estas pli grava, ol havita. 
13 Pasero kaptita estas pli bona, ci agio kaptota. 
14 Lasoldatoj kondukis la arestitojn tra la stratoj. 
15 Li venis al mi tute neatendite. 16 Homo, kiun 
oni devas juĝi, estas ĵuĝoto. 

f This meaning can be expressed : Tempo pasinta=/ > as* 
time. Tempo kiu estas pasinta= Time which has passed. 
Tempo, pasinte, jam neniam re venos=Ti?ne, having passed, 
will never return. 


1 Flowing water is purer than water standing 
still. 2 While walking in the street, I fell. 3 When 
Nicodemus beats Joseph, then Nicodemus is the 
beater and Joseph is the beaten. *God readily 
pardons a man who has sinned unintentionally. 
5 Having found an apple, I ate it. 6 The fallen man 
could not raise himself. 7 Do not reproach your 
friend, for you yourself more deserve reproach ; he 

Exercises 127 

is only once a liar, while you are still, now, always 
a liar. 8 The past time will never return ; the 
future time no one yet knows. 9 Come, we await 
you, Savior of the world. 10 In the language 
* 'Esperanto" we see the future language of the 
whole world. n Augustus is my most beloved son. 
12 Money had [now] is more important than [that 
which has] been had. 13 A sparrow caught is 
better than an eagle to be caught. u The soldiers 
led the arrested persons through the streets. 16 He 
came to me quite unexpectedly. 16 A man whom 
they have to try is the accused (person to be tried). 

The student has observed that while sometimes 
the translations of these Exercises follow the 
Esperanto text so literally as to make very poor 
English, this is not invariable ; frequently the 
translation follows the thought more closely than 
the text. The student will find fewer parenthetical 
explanations as he proceeds and will rely more and 
more upon his own perceptions to grasp the spirit 
and style of Esperanto. 

128 The American Esperanto Book 


kelke, some, aventuro, adventure. 

konsideri, to consider, inda, worthy, valuable. 

doto, dowry. palaco, palace. 

propra, (one's) own. akcepti, to accept. 

baldaŭ, soon. angulo, corner, angle. 

iĝ, to become : pala, pale ; paliĝi, to turn pale. 

je, indefinite preposition. See p. 53. 

La Feino (Fino) 

1 La reĝido, kiu vidis, ke el Ŝia buŝo eliris 
kelke a da perloj kaj kelke da diamantoj, petis Sin, 
ke Ŝi diru al li, de kie tio ĉi venas. 2 Si rakontis 
al li sian tutan aventuron. 3 La reĝido konsideris, 
ke tia kapablo havas pli grandan indon, ol ĉio, 
kion oni povus doni dote al alia fraŭlino, forkondu- 
kis b Ŝin al la palaco de sia patro, la reĝo, kie li 
edziĝis je Ŝi. * Sed pri Ŝia fratino ni povas diri, 
ke Ŝi fariĝis c tiel malaminda, ke Ŝia propra patrino 
Sin forpelis de si ; kaj la malfeliĉa knabino, multe 
kurinte kaj trovinte neniun» kiu volis Sin akcepti, 
baldaŭ mortis en angulo de arbaro. 

Exercises 129 

*Kelke. See Note b, Exercise 12. 

b Conducted away. For, with other Esperanto adverbs 
and prepositions, is often thus joined to the verb instead of 
following it. 

c Fari, to make; fariĝi, to become. 


The Fairy ( Concluded ) 

1 The prince, who saw that from her mouth 
issued some pearls and diamonds, begged her to 
tell him whence this came. 2 She told him her 
whole adventure. s The prince considered that 
such a gift had greater value than all which one 
could give as a dowry to another maiden, [and] 
took her away to the palace of his father, the king, 
where he married her. * But concerning her sister 
we may say that she became so hateful that her 
own mother drove her away from her ; and the 
unhappy girl, having run about a great deal and 
having found no one who wished to receive her, 
soon died in a corner of the forest. 

130 The American Esperanto Book 


salono, drawing-room. 

os, sign of future tense of verbs : amos, will 

1 Nun li diras al mi la veron. % Hieraŭ li diris 
al mi la veron. s Li ĉiam diradis a al mi la veron. 
* Kiam vi vidis nin en la salono, lijam antaŭe diris 
al mi la veron (aŭ li estis dirinta al mi la veron). 
5 Li diros al mi la veron. 6 Kiam vi venos al mi, li 
jam antaŭe diros al mi la veron (aŭ li estos dirinta 
al mi la veron ; aŭ antaŭ b ol vi venos al mi, li 
diros al mi la veron). 7 Se mi petus lin, li dirus 
al mi la veron. 8 Mi ne farus la eraron, se li 
antaŭe c dirus al mi la veron (aŭ se li estus dirinta 
al mi la veron). 9 Kiam mi venos, diru al mi la 
veron. 10 Kiam mia patro venos, diru al mi antaŭe 
la veron (aŭ estu dirinta al mi la veron). n Mi 
volas diri al vi la veron. 12 Mi volas, ke tio, kion 
mi diris, estu vera (aŭ mi volas esti dirinta la 

Exercises 131 

* Diri, to say; ad, suffix of continued action ; diradas, 
continues to say, to tell. 

b Antaŭ ol, before than. See Page 49. 

c Observe that the conditional, or -us mood, has no time. 
Here, the past tense is inferred from antaŭe. 


1 Now he tells me the truth. 2 Yesterday he 
told me the truth. 3 He always tells me the truth. 
*When you saw us in the drawing-room he had 
already (previously) told me the truth. 5 He will 
tell me the truth. 6 When you come to me he will 
previously have told me the truth (or he will have 
told me the truth ; or, before you come to me he 
will tell me the truth). 7 If I should ask him, he 
would tell me the truth. 8 1 should not have made 
the mistake if he had previously told me the truth. 
9 When I shall come, tell me the truth. 10 When 
my father comes, tell me (previously) the truth. 
11 1 wish to tell you the truth. 12 1 wish that what 
I said be true (or, I wish to have told the truth). 

In connection with this Exercise the student 
should review the conjugations of the Infinitive, 
Imperative and Conditional modes. See pp. 32-35. 

132 The American Esperanto Book 


inviti, to invite. komerci, to trade, 

sekvi, to follow. konstrui, to construct. 

ŝuldi, to owe. oro, gold. 

ringo, ring. lerta, skillful. 

projekto, project. inĝeniero, engineer, 

fero, iron. vojo, road, way. 

agi, to act. pastro, priest, pastor, 

kameno, fire-place. poto, pot. 

kaldrono, kettle. boli, to boil. 

vaporo, steam. pordo, door. 

korto, yard, court, 

aĵ, something made from or possessing the qual- 
ity of: malnova, old \ malnovaĵo, an old thing; 
frukto, fruit ; fruktaĵo, something made from fruit. 

1 Mi estas amata. 2 Mi estis amata. 3 Mi estos 
amata. 4 Mi estus a amata. 5 Estu amata. 6 Esti 
amata. 7 Vi estas lavita. 8 Vi estis lavita. 9 Vi 
estos lavita. 10 Vi estus a lavita. n Estu lavita. 
12 Esti lavita. 13 Li estas invitota. " Li estis 
invitota. 15 Li estos invitota. 16 Li estus a invitota. 
17 Estu invitota. 18 Esti invitota. 19 Tiu ĉi komer- 
caĵo estas ĉiam volonte aĉetata b de mi. 20 La 
surtuto estas aĉetita de mi, sekve ĝi apartenas al 
mi. 21 Kiam via domo estis konstruata, mia domo 
estis jam longe konstruita. 22 Mi sciigas, ke de 

Exercises 133 

nun la Ŝuldoj de mia filo ne estos pagataj de mi. 
23 Estu trankvila ; mia tuta Ŝuldo estos pagita al 
vi baldaŭ. 24 Mia ora ringo ne estus a tiel longe 
serĉata, se ĝi ne estus tiel lerte kaŝita de vi. 25 Laŭ 
la projekto de la inĝenieroj c tiu ĉi fervojo estas 
konstruota en la daŭro de du jaroj ; sed mi pensas, 
ke ĝi estos konstruata pli ol tri jarojn d . 26 Honesta 
homo agas honeste. 27 La pastro, kiu mortis antaŭ 6 
nelonge (aŭ antaŭ nelonga tempo), loĝis longe en 
nia urbo. 28 ĉu hodiaŭ f estas varme aŭ malvarme? 
29 Sur la kameno inter du potoj staras fera kaldrono ; 
el la kaldrono, en kiu sin trovas bolanta akvo, 
eliras vaporo ; tra la fenestro, kiu sin trovas apud 
la pordo, la vaporo iras sur la korton g . 

a The use of estus in Sentences 4, 10 and 16 indicates the 
presence of a condition or contingency, though this is not 
stated, as in Sentence 24. Be careful not to translate should 
by estus where duty is expressed — use devas=ought. 

b The passive participle is connected with the source of the 
action by de. See Rule VI, Page 15. 

c This word means civil engineer. The word for locomo- 
tive engineer is maŝinisto, or a more precise term, lokomotiv- 
isto. Fervojo (iron-zuay) is the Esperanto term for railway. 

d Do not forget that where a preposition is omitted the 
accusative case is used. Here, the absent preposition is dum. 

e Antaŭ nelonge is the expression usually used for not long 
ago, a short time ago, recently. 

f Hodiaŭ, hieraŭ and morgaŭ are not nouns, but adverbs, 
Hence the adverbial form of varme and malvarme. The 
noun form, when necessary so to speak of today, tomorrow, 
is la hodiaŭa tago, la morgaŭa tago. 

* Accusative to show direction. 

134 The American Esperanto Book 


1 1 am loved. 2 1 was loved. 3 1 shall be loved. 

* I should be loved [if ]. 5 Be loved. 6 To be 

loved. 7 You have been washed. 8 You had been 
washed. 9 You will have been washed. 10 You 
would have been washed. n Be washed (past). 
12 To be washed. 13 He is to be invited. 14 He was 
to be invited. 15 He will be (about) to be invited. 
16 He would be (about) to be invited. 17 Be invited 
(future). 18 To be (about) to be invited. "This 
article (of commerce) is always willingly purchased 
by me. 20 The overcoat has been bought by me , 
consequently it belongs to me. 21 When your house 
was being built, my house had already been built 
for a long time. 22 1 make [it] known that from 
now on the debts of my son will not be paid by me. 
23 Be at ease ; my entire debt will have been paid 
to you soon. 2 * My gold ring would not be so long 
searched for if it had not been so cleverly hidden 
by you. 25 According to the project of the engin- 
eers, this railway is to be built in the course of 
two years, but I think that it will be under con- 
struction more than three years. 26 An honest man 
acts honestly. 27 The priest who died recently had 
lived a long time in our city. 28 Is it warm or cold 
today? (or, is today warm or cold?) 29 On the 
hearth between two pots stands an iron kettle ; from 
the kettle, in which is (finds itself) boiling water, 
issues steam ; through the window, which is near 
the door, the steam goes into the yard. 




ekster, outside. 
pie do, foot. 
meti, to put, place. 
muso, mouse. 
super, over, above. 
kafo, coffee. 
sukero, sugar. 
interne, within. 
hirundo, swallow. 
rivero, river. 
atenta, attentive. 
dubi, to doubt. 
fi! fie! 

vojaĝi, voyage, travel. 
benko, bench. 
kanapo, sofa, lounge. 
lito, bed. 
aero, air, 
teo, tea. 
kremo, cream. 
fianĉo, betrothed person 
trans, across. 
estro, chief. 
kvankam, although. 
estimi, to esteem. 
abomeno, abomination. 

rafcida, rapid, quick. 

et, diminution of degree or size : malvarma, 
cold\ malvarmeta, cool; ridi, to laugh; rideti, 
to smile. 

1 Kie vi estas? 2 Mi estas en la ĝardeno. 3 Kien 
vi iras? * Mi iras en la gardenon. 5 La birdo 
flugas en la ĉambro (=ĝi estas en la Ĉambro kaj 
flugas en ĝi). 6 La birdo flugas en la ĉambron 
(=ĝi estas ekster la ĉambro kaj flugas nun en 
ĝin). 7 Mi vojaĝas en Hispanujo. 8 Mi vojaĝas 
en Hispanujon. 9 Mi sidas sur seĝo kaj tenas la 
piedojn sur benketo. 10 Mi metas la manon sur la 

136 The American Esperanto Book 

tablon a . " El sub la kanapo la muso kuris sub la 
liton, kaj nun ĝi kuras sub lalito. 12 Super la tero 
sin trovas b aero. 13 Anstataŭ kafo li donis al mi 
teon kun sukero c , sed sen kremo. "Mi staras 
ekster la domo, kaj li estas interne. 15 En la salono 
estis neniu krom li kaj lia fianĉino. 16 La hirundo 
flugis trans la riveron, car trans la rivero sin trovis 
aliaj hirundoj. 17 Mi restas tie ĉi laŭ la ordono de 
mia estro. 18 Kiam li estis ĉe d mi li staris tutan 
horon 6 apud la fenestro. 19 Li diras, ke mi estas 
atenta. 20 Li petas, ke mi estu f atenta. 21 Kvankam 
vi estas riĉa, mi dubas, ĉu g vi estas feliĉa. 22 Se vi 
scius, kiu li estas, vi lin pli estimus. 23 Se li jam 
venis, petu lin al mi. 24 Ho, Dio ! kion vi faras ! 
25 Ha, kiel bele ! 26 For de tie Ĉi ! 27 Fi, kiel 
abomene ! 28 Nu, iru pli rapide ! 

a I move my hand toward the table in the act of placing it 
upon the table. Hence, n for direction. Note carefully this 
sign of direction in Sentences 4, 6, 8, 10, 11 , 16. 

b Observe the use of sin trovas here, as in Sentence 29, 
Exercise 25. This is often used instead of estas. A similar 
form is sin turnu al, to address oneself to, to turn to. ĉiuj 
sin turnu al la redaktoro=Z^ all address the editor. 

c Sukero here, because kun is a preposition. Without the 
preposition, it would be teon kaj sukeron. 

d Esperanto often uses the pronoun thus : Ĉe roi=At my 
house. Ĉe v'x=At your house. 
See Note c, Exercise 25. 

f This meaning, in English, has two forms of expression — 
he asks that I be atte?itive t or he asks me to be attentive. 
In Esperanto the former is invariably used. 

Exercises 137 

g Dubi in any form is followed by ĉu to connect a proposi- 
tion containing a verb, and by pri when followed by a noun : 
Mi dubas ĉu vi estas fidela=/ doubt whether you are faith- 
ful Mi dubas pri via fideleco=/ doubt (concerning) your 


1 Where are you? 2 I am in the garden. 
8 Where are you going ? * I am going into the 
garden. 5 The bird flies in the room (it is in the 
room and flies about in it). 6 Thebird flies into the 
room (it is outside the room and flies into it). 7 I 
am traveling in Spain. 8 I am traveling into Spain. 
9 1 sit on a chair and keep my feet upon a stool. 
10 1 place my hand upon the table. n From under 
the sofa the mouse ran under the bed, and now it 
runs about under the bed. 12 Above the earth is 
(finds itself) air. 13 Instead of coffee he gave me 
tea with sugar, but without cream. u I stand out- 
side the house, and he is within. 15 In the draw- 
ing-room was nobody except him and his fiancee. 
16 The swallow flew across the river, because beyond 
the river were other swallows. l ' I am remaining 
here according to the orders of my chief. 18 When 
he was at my house he stood a whole hour at the 
window. 19 He says that I am attentive. 20 He 
asks that I be attentive. 21 Although you are rich, 
I doubt that (whether) you are happy. 22 If you 
knew who he is you would esteem him more. 23 If 
he has already come, ask him to come to me. 2i Oh 
God ! what are you doing? 25 Ah, how beautiful ! 
26 Away from here ! 27 Fie, how abominable 1 28 Well, 
go faster ! 

138 The American Esperanto Book 


artikolo, article, tiam, then, 

objekto, object, tia, such, such a 

kompreni, understand, ekzemplo, example. 
polo, Pole. necesa, necessary. 

vokalo, vowel. prepozicio, preposition. 

kunmeti, to compound, simpla, simple. 
ligi, to bind. radiko, root. 

soni, to sound, klara, clear. 

postuli, claim, require, gramatiko, grammar. 
nacio, nation. diversa, diverse, various 

ŝipo, ship. aboni, to subscribe. 

matenmanĝi, to eat breakfast, 

1 La artikolo la estas uzata tiam a , kiam ni paro- 
las pri personoj aŭ objektoj konataj. 2 Ĝia uzado 
estas tia sama kiel en la aliaj lingvoj. s La per- 
sonoj, kiuj b ne komprenas la uzadon de la artikolo 
(ekzemple rusoj aŭ poloj, kiuj ne scias alian ling- 
von krom sia propra), povas en la unua tempo tute 
ne uzi la artikolon, ĉar ĝi estas oportuna sed ne 
necesa. 4 Anstataŭ la oni povas ankaŭ diri P, (sed 
nur post prepozicio, kiu fmiĝas per vokalo). 
6 Vortoj kunmetitaj estas kreataj per simpla kun- 
ligado de vortoj ; one prenas ordinare la purajn 
radikojn, sed, se la bonsoneco aŭ la klareco postu- 
las, oni povas ankaŭ preni la tutan vorton, t. e., 
la radikon kune kun ĝia gramatika finiĝo. 6 Ek- 
zemploj : skribtablo aŭ skribotablo (tablo, sur kiu 
oni skribas) ; internacia (=kiu estas inter diversaj 
nacioj); tutmonda (de la tuta mondo); unutaga 

Exercises 139 

(kiu daŭras unu tagon); unuataga (kiu estas en 

la unua tago); vaporŝipo (= r ŝipo, kiu sin movas 

per vaporo); matenmanĝi, tagmanĝi, vespermanĝi; 

abonpago (=pago por la abono). 

a Observe this use of tiam kiam=tken zuhen. In English 
we use -when alone, and frequently in Esperanto simply kiam. 
Tiam kiam is more definite and emphatic. 

b Note that kiuj is plural because it represents more than 
one person. 

1 The article la is used when we speak of persons 
or things known. 2 Its use is the same as in the 
other languages. 8 Persons who do not understand 
the use of the article (for example Russians or 
Poles who do not know another language beside 
their own), may at first not use the article at all, 
for it is convenient but not necessary. ^Instead 
of la we can also say V (but only after a preposi- 
tion which ends with a vowel) . 5 Compound words 
are formed by simple junction of words ; we gen- 
erally take the pure roots, but if euphony or clear- 
ness demands, we can also take the whole word ; 
i. e., the root together with its grammatical ending : 
6 Examples : skribtablo, or skribotablo, a. table on 
which one writes ; internacia, that which exists 
between or among various nations ; tutmonda, of 
the whole world ; unutaga, lasting one day ; unua- 
taga> of the first day ; vaporŝipo, a ship which 
moves by steam; matenmanĝi, tagmanĝi, vesper- 
manĝi, to breakfast, to dine, to eat supper ; abon- 
pago, payment for subscription. 

140 The American Esperanto Book 


iam, at any time, ever nominativo, nominative. 
akuzativo, accusative tie, there. 
dependi, to depend. kaŭzo, cause. 
esprimi, to express. direkti, to direct. 
celi, to aim. egala, equal. 

ia, any kind of. veturi, to journey, travel 

flanko, side. dekstra, right-hand. 

neniel, in no way. nek.... nek, neither... nor 

dis' same as the English prefix dis : semi, sow; 
dissemi, to scatter broadcast, disseminate. 

1 Ĉiuj prepozicioj per si mem postulas ĉiam nur 
la nominativon. 2 Se ni iam post prepozicio uzas 
la akuzativon, la akuzativo tie dependas ne de la 
prepozicio, sed de aliaj kaŭzoj. 3 Ekzemple : por 
esprimi direkton, ni aldonas al la vorton la finon n; 
sekve: tie (=en tiu loko), tien (=al tiu loko); 
tiel same ni ankaŭ diras "la birdo flugis en la ĝar- 
denon, sur la tablon," kaj la vortoj "ĝardenon," 
"tablon" staras tie ĉi en akuzativo ne car la pre- 
pozicioj "en" kaj "sur" tion ĉi postulas, sed nur 
car ni volas esprimi direkton, t. e. montri, ke la 

Exercises 14.I 

birdo ne sin trovis antaŭe en la ĝardeno kaj tie 
flugis, sed ke ĝi de alia loko flugis al la ĝardeno, 
al la tablo (ni volas montri ke la ĝardeno kaj la 
tablo ne estis la loko de la flugado, sed nur la celo 
de la flugado); en tiaj okazoj ni uzas la finiĝon n 
tute a egale ĉu ia prepozicio starus aŭ ne. *Morgau 
mi veturos Parizon (aŭ en Parizon). 5 Mi restos 
hodiaŭ dome. 6 Jam estas tempo iri domen. 7 Ni 
disiĝis kaj iris en diversajn flankojn : mi iris dek- 
stren kaj li iris maldekstren. 8 Flanken, sinjoro ! 
9 Mi konas neniun en tiu ĉi urbo. 10 Mi neniel povas 
kompreni, kion vi parolas. n Mi renkontis nek lin, 
nek b Han fraton (aŭ mi ne renkontis lin, nek lian 

a Egale is here used where one would expect same. 

b Note nek nek, translated neither nor. A similar 

form, though practically obsolete, is sometimes used in Eng- 
lish: nor voice nor sound. 


1 All prepositions, in themselves, always require 
only the nominative. 2 If we ever, after a prepo- 
sition, use the accusative, the accusative there 
depends not on the preposition, but on other causes. 
1 For example, to express direction, we add to the 

142 The American Esperanto Book 

word the ending n ; consequently, tie, in that place: 
tien, to that place; similarly, we also say 'the 
bird flew into the garden, upon the table"; and the 
words "garden," "table," here stand in the accu- 
sative not because the prepositions "in" and "on" 
require this, but only because we wish to express 
direction; i. e., to show that the bird was not 
previously in the garden and flew about there, but 
that it flew from another place into the garden, 
upon the table (we wish to show that the garden 
and table were not the place of the flying, but only 
the goal of the flight); in such cases we use the 
accusative just the same, whether any preposition 
is there or not. * Tomorrow I shall go to Paris. 
5 1 shall remain in the house today. 6 It is already 
time to go home. 7 We separated and went in 
different directions ; I went to the right and he 
went to the left. 8 To one side, sir 1 9 I know no 
one in this city. 10 1 can in no way understand 
what you are saying. n I met neither him nor his 
brother (or, I did not meet him, nor his brother). 

Exercises 143 


senco, sense. komuna, common, 

ebla, possible, ofte, often. 

ridi, to laugh, lasta, last, latest, 

sopiri, to sigh, long for. regulo, rule, 
verbo, verb. obei, to obey. 

permesi, to permit, allow. 

1 Se ni bezonas a uzi prepozicion, kaj la senco ne 
montras al ni, kian prepozicion uzi, tiam ni povas 
uzi la komunan prepozicion je, 2 Sed estas bone 
uzi la vorton je kiel eble pli b malofte. 3 Anstataŭ 
la vorto je ni povas ankaŭ uzi la akuzativon sen 
prepozicio. * Mi ridas je lia naiveco ( aŭ mi ridas 
pro lia naiveco, aŭ : mi ridas lian naivecon) 

6 Je la lasta fojo mi vidis lin ĉe vi (aŭ : la lastan 
fojon). 6 Mi veturis du tagojn kaj unu nokton. 

7 Mi sopiras je mia perdita feliĉo (aŭ: mian perditan 
feliĉon). 8 El la dirita regulo sekvas, ke se ni pri 
ia verbo ne scias, ĉu ĝi postulas post si la akuza- 
tivon (t. e. ĉu ĝi estas aktiva) aŭ ne, ni povas 

a Note indicative mode following se. The need of a prepo- 
sition is not a matter of doubt. See Note e, Exercise 20. 

b Another peculiar Esperanto form, very frequently used : 
Kiel eble plej frue, kiel eble plej bone, kiel eble plej multe. 

144 The American Esperanto Book 

Ĉiam uzi la akuzativon. 9 Ekzemple, ni povas diri 
"obei al la patro" kaj "obei la patron" (anstataŭ 
"obei je la patro"). 10 Sedni ne uzas la akuzativon 
tiam, kiam la klareco de la senco tion ĉi malper- 
mesas ; ekzemple : ni povas diri "pardoni al la 
malamiko" kaj "pardoni la malamikon," sed ni 
devas ĉiam diri "pardoni al la malamiko lian kul- 


1 If we need to use a preposition and the sense 
does not show us what preposition to use, then we 
can use the common preposition je, 2 But it is 
well to use the word je as seldom as possible. 
3 Instead of the word je we can also use the accusa- 
tive without a preposition. * I laugh at his sim- 
plicity. 5 The last time I saw him at your house. 
6 1 travelled two days and one night. 7 I sigh for 
my lost happiness. 8 From the said rule it follows 
that if, concerning any verb, we do not know 
whether or not it requires the accusative after it 
(i. e. whether or not it is transitive) we can always 
use the accusative. 9 For example, we can say "to 
obey 'to' the father" and "to obey the father." 
10 But we do not use the accusative when the clearness 
of sense forbids this ; for example, we can say "to 
pardon 'to' the enemy" and "to pardon the enemy"; 
but we should always say "to pardon to the enemy 
his fault." 

Exercises 145 


ia, of any kind. konsili, counsel, advise. 

ial, for any cause. serio, series. 

iam, at any time, ever, pronomo, pronoun, 

ie, anywhere. adverbo, adverb. 

iel, in any way, rilati, to be related to, 

ies, anyone's. prefikso, prefix. 

io, anything. ajn, ever. 

iom, any quantity. diferenci, to differ, 

iu, anybody, somebody, helpi, to help. 

sufikso, suffix. 

1 Ia, ial, iam, ie, iel, ies, io, iom, iu. 8 La 
montritajn naŭ vortojn ni konsilas bone ellerni a , 
ĉar el ili ĉiu povas fari al si grandan serion da 
aliaj pronomoj kaj adverboj. 3 Se ni aldonas la 
literon k ni ricevas vortojn demandajn aŭ rilatajn : 
kia, kial, kiam, kie, kiel, hies, kio, kiom, kiu. * Se 
ni aldonas la literon /, ni ricevas vortojn montrajn : 
tia, tial, Ham, tie, tiel, ties, tio, Horn, tiu. 5 Aldon- 

a El, when used as a prefix, is sometimes translated thor- 
oughly, though this is not its literal sense. Ellerni, to learn 
out, to study out; ellabori, to vuork out. 

146 The American Esperanto Book 

ante la literon t ni ricevas vortojn komunajn : 
Ha, Hal, Ham, He, Hel, Hes, Ho, Horn, Hu. c Aldon- 
ante la prefikson nen ni ricevas vortojn neajn : 
nenia, nenial, nenia?n, nenie, neniel, nenies, nenio, 
neniom, neniu. 7 Aldonante al la vortoj montraj la 
vorton H ni ricevas montron pli proksiman ; ekzem- 
ple : tin, pli malproksima, tiu H (aŭ H tiu) pli 
proksima ; tie, malproksime, tie ĉi aŭ H tie, prok- 
sime. 8 Aldonante al la vortoj demandaj la vorton 
ajn ni ricevas vortojn sendiferencajn : kia ajn, kial 
ajn, Mam ajn, kie ajn, kiel ajn, kies ajn, kio ajn, 
kiom ajn, kiu ajn. Ekster tio el la diritaj vortoj ni 
povas ankoraŭ fari aliajn vortojn, per helpo de 
gramatikaj finiĝoj kaj aliaj vortoj (sufiksoj) ; ek- 
zemple : tiama, Hama, kioma, tiea, H-tiea, tieulo, 
tiamulo, k. t. p. (=kaj tiel plu). 

In connection with this lesson, the student should review 
what is said of Correlative Words, pp. 70-73. A few explana- 
tions are added here : 

Tia is the demonstrative of quality, translated that, such a, 
such kind. With the relative, kia, it translates such as. 
Also, it is used as a demonstrative article, in the sense of the 
for the purpose of giving added force, just as unu is similarly 
used in a less definite sense. (See Note a, Exercise 11). 
In this sense, it loses its significance of quality, and may be 
followed by kiel, the relative of manner. In Exercise 27, 

Exercises 147 

Sentence 2, we have tia sama kiel, which is correct, because 
tia means the. But we must not say tia bona kiel, the sense 
here being as good as, and the correct form tiel bona kiel. 

Io, tio, kio, ĉio, nenio. These all refer to objects and are 
not used as modifying words, They indicate the thing itself. 
Kio estas tio? Hemo= TVhat is that? Nothing. But if we 
wish to use the correlatives as modifying words, we say : la 
bhdo=Any kind of bird. Ĉiuj birdoj=^# birds. 

Ĉiu means each, or every, but does not mean all, as do 
ĉiam, ĉie, ĉiel, ĉiom, etc. Iu and the other four words of 
this series express individuality, but refer, when not otherwise 
specified, to persons. Hence, to express plurals, ĉiuj, kiuj, 
tiuj are the correct forms. 


1 Some kind, for some reason, some time, some- 
where, somehow, somebody's, something, some 
quantity, somebody. 2 The nine words shown we 
advise [the student] to learn thoroughly, because 
from them everyone can make for himself a large 
series of other pronouns and adverbs. 3 If we add 
to them [as a prefix] the letter k, we obtain inter- 
rogative or relative words : what kind, why, when, 
where, how, whose, what (thing), how much, who. 
If we add the letter t we get demonstrative words : 
such, therefore, then, there, thus, that person's, 

148 The American Esperanto Book 

that, that much, that person. 5 Adding the letter £ 
we get collective words : each and every kind, for 
every reason, always, everywhere, in every way, 
everybody's, everything, all, everyone. 6 Adding 
the prefix nen, we obtain negative words : no such, 
for no reason, never, nowhere, nohow, no one's, 
nothing, none, nobody. 'Adding to the demon- 
strative words the word Ĉi, we obtain a meaning of 
proximity ; for example : tiu, that, tiu ĉi, this ; 
tie, there, tie ci, here. 8 Adding to the interrogative 
words the word ajn> we get indifferent words : 
whatever kind of, for whatever reason, whenever, 
wherever, however, whosesoever, whatever, what- 
ever quantity, whoever. 9 Besides this, from these 
words we can make still other words, with the help 
of the grammatical endings and other words (suf- 
fixes) ; for example : contemporaneous (existing 
then), eternal, how much, there, a person living 
there or being present, a contemporary or person 
of that time. 

Exercises 1 49 


humoro, humor. fermi, to shut. 

korpo, body. animo, soicl. 

kontrakti, to contract. plenumi, to fulfill, 

bruli, to b?crn. liĝno, wood. 

materialo, material. bastono, stick. 

tegmenta, roof. funto, pound. 

koloro, color. supre, above, upper. 

telero, plate. tero, earth. 

kesto, chest, box. lipo, lip, 

haro, hair. ĝriza, gray. 

vanĝo, cheek. 

ist, person occupied with : maro, sea; maristo, 

1 Lia kolero longe daŭris. 2 Li estas hodiaŭ en 
kolera humoro. 3 Li koleras kaj insultas. * Li 
fermis kolere la pordon. 6 Lia filo mortis kaj estas 
nun malviva. 6 La korpo estas morta, la animo 
estas senmorta. 7 Li estas morte malsana, li ne 
vivos pli, ol unu tagon. 8 Li parolas, kaj lia parolo 
fluas dolĉe kaj agrable. 9 Ni faris la kontrakton 
ne skribe, sed parole. 10 Li estas bona parolanto. 
"Starante ekstere, li povis vidi nur la eksteran 
flankon de nia domo. 12 Li loĝas ekster la urbo. 
13 La ekstero de tiu ĉi homo estas pli bona, ol lia 
interno. u Li tuj faris, kion mi volis, kaj mi 

150 The American Esperanto Book 

dankis lin por la tuja plenumo de mia deziro. 
15 Kia granda brulo ! kio brulas? 16 Ligno estas 
bona brula materialo. 17 La fera bastono, kiu 
kuŝis en la forno, estas nun brule a varmega. 18 Ĉu 
li donis al vi jesan respondon, aŭ nean? 19 Li eliris 
el b la dormoĉambro kaj eniris en la manĝoĉambron. 

20 La birdo ne forflugis ; ĝi nur deflugis de la arbo, 
alflugis al la domo kaj surflugis sur la tegmenton. 

21 Por ĉiu aĉetita funto da teo tiu ĉi komercisto 
aldonas senpage funton da sukero. 22 Lernolibron 
oni devas ne tralegi, sed tralerni. 23 Li portas 
rozkoloran c superveston kaj teleroforman ĉapelon. 
24 En mia skribotablo sin trovas kvar tirkestoj. 
25 Liaj lipharoj estas pli grizaj, ol liaj vangharoj. 

a In Sentences 1, 2, 3, 4, kolero, kolera, koleras, kolere; 
in 15, 16, 17, brulo, brulas, brula, brule. These sentences are 
designed to show with what facility an Esperanto root may be 
used as a noun, adjective, verb or adverb. To add the parti- 
ciples in their adjectival, substantival and adverbial forms, 
with the variations and degrees of meaning made possible by 
the use of affixes — it would puzzle the expert Esperantist to 
measure the possible range of expression. 

b Eliris el, deflugis de, alflugis al, surflugis sur. See Note 
c, Exercise 8. 

c This lesson contains a number of compound words. The 
student may at first find it difficult to distinguish these at sight, 
but he will soon "catch the spiri,t" of Esperanto. Failing in 
this, he will search the vocabularies in vain for seeming roots 
which are only simple combinations. 

Exercises 151 


1 His anger lasted a long time. 2 He is today in 
an angry mood. 3 He is angry and is insulting. 
* He shut the door angrily. 5 His son died and is 
now lifeless. 6 The body is mortal, the soul is 
immortal. 7 He is mortally ill, he will not live 
more than one day. 8 He speaks and his speech 
flows sweetly and agreeably. 9 We made the con- 
tract not in writing, but verbally. 10 He is a good 
speaker. "Standing outside, he could see only 
the outside of our house. 12 He lives outside the 
city. 13 The exterior of this man is better 
than his interior. 14 He did at once what I wished, 
and I thanked him for the immediate fulfillment 
of my desire. 15 What a big blaze ! What is 
burning? 16 Wood is good burning material. 
17 The iron rod which lay in the furnace is now 
burning hot. 18 Did he give you an affirmative or 
a negative reply? 19 He went out of the bed-room 
and entered the dining-room, 20 The bird did not 
fly away ; it only flew down from the tree, flew to 
the house and lit upon the roof. 21 For every pound 
of tea purchased, this dealer adds free a pound of 
sugar. 22 A text-book one ought not to read through, 
but to learn through. 23 He wears a rose-colored 
gown and a mortar-board hat. 24 In my writing- 
table are four drawers. 25 His mustache is grayer 
than his whiskers. 

152 The American Esperanto Book 


teatro, theater. okupi, to occupy. 

maniero, manner, mehaniko, mechanics. 

ĥemio, chemistry. diplomatic), diplomacy. 

fiziko, physics. scienco, science. 

ĝlaso, glaso. nigra, black. 

drapo, cloth. signifi, to signify. 

ovo, egg. bordo, shore. 

maro, sea. amaso, crowd. 

aŭtuno, autumn. lando, land, country. 

suferi, to suffer. najbaro, neighbor. 
mezuri, to measure. 

1 Teatramanto of te vizitas la teatron kaj ricevas* 
baldaŭ teatrajn manierojn. 2 Kiu okupas sin je 
mehaniko, estas mehanikisto, kaj kiu okupas sin je 
hemio, estas hemiisto. 3 Diplomatiiston oni povas 
ankaŭ nomi diplomato, sed fizikiston oni ne povas 
nomi fiziko, car fiziko estas la nomo de la scienco 
mem. 4 La fotografisto fotografis min, kaj mi 
sendis mian fotografaĵon al mia patro. 6 Glaso de 
vino estas glaso, en kiu antaŭe sin trovis vino, aŭ 
kiun oni uzas por vino ; glaso da vino estas glaso 
plena je vino. 6 Alportu al mi metron da nigra 

Exercises 153 

drapo. (Metro de drapo signifus metron, kiu 
kuŝis sur drapo, aŭ kiu estas uzata por drapo). 
7 Mi aĉetis dekon da ovoj; 8 Tiu ĉi rivero havas 
ducent kilometrojn da longo. 9 Sur la bordo de la 
maro staris amaso da b homoj. 10 Multaj birdoj 
flugas en la aŭtuno en pli varmajn landojn. n Sur 
la arbo sin trovis multe (aŭ multo) da birdoj. 
12 Kelkaj homoj sentas sin la plej feliĉaj c , kiam ili 
vidas la suferojn de siaj najbaroj. 13 En la ĉambro 
sidis nur kelke da homoj. ""Da" post ia vorto 
montras, ke tiu ĉi vorto havas signifion de mezuro. 

a Note the use of ricevas where the inclination would be to 
use akiras. The latter would mean that he desired or culti- 
vated the manner, rather than that it simply "stuck to him," 
and in some instances at least would be fully appropriate. 

b If the student will thoroughly study the uses of da in this 
exercise he should never err regarding its use. 

c Sentas sin ie\iĈ3i]=Feel themselves ha$£y. Feliĉaj is 
nominative, being a predicative adjective. Supplying the full 
sense, we have sentas sin esti feliĉaj. See also Sentence 7, 
Exercise 33. 


1 A theater-lover often visits the theater, and 
soon acquires theatrical manners. 2 He who occu- 

154 The American Esperanto Book 

pies himself with mechanics is a mechanic, and he 
who occupies himself with chemistry is a chemist. 
3 A diplomat we can call diplomato, but a physician 
we cannot call fiziko, because fiziko is the name of 
the science itself. * The photographer photogaphed 
me and I sent my photograph to my father. 
Glaso de vino is a glass in which was previously 
wine, or which one uses for wine ; glaso da vino 
is a glass full of wine. 6 Bring me a meter of (da) 
black cloth (metro de drapo would mean a meter 
which lay on the cloth, or which is used for cloth). 
7 I bought ten eggs. 8 This river is two hundred 
kilometers long. 9 On the shore of the sea stood a 
crowd of people. 10 Many birds fly in the autumn 
to warmer countries. " Upon the tree were many 
birds. 12 Some people feel happiest when they 
witness the sufferings of their neighbors. 13 In the 
room sat only a few people. u Da after a word 
shows that this word has a sense of measure. 

Exercises 155 


mezo, middle. kreski, to grow. 

dika, thick, fat. larĝa, broad. 

lumo, light, mola, soft. 

turmenti, to torment. senti, to feel. 

beni, to bless. nobla, noble. 

rekta, straight. kurba, curved. 

kredi, to believe. renversi, to upset. 

monto, mountain. kampo, field. 

koko, cock, chicken. nepo, grandson. 

duotipatro, stepfather, bovo, ox 

bo, relative by marriage : patrino, mother ; bo- 
patrino, mother-in-law. 

1 Mia frato ne estas granda, sed li ne estas 
ankaŭ malgranda ; li estas de meza kresko. 2 Li 
estas tiel dika a , ke li ne povas trairi tra nia mal- 
larĝa pordo. 3 Haro estas tre maldika. * La nokto 
estis tiel malluma, ke ni nenion povis vidi eĉ antaŭ 
nia nazo. 5 Tiu ĉi malfreŝa pano estas malmola, 
kiel ŝtono. 6 Malbonaj infanoj amas turmenti 

a Dika, usually translated thick, here means thick in a 
sense not often thus expressed in English. Careful English 
is stout, while a popular and expressive Americanism is fat. 

156 The American Esperanto Book 

bestojn. 7 Li sentis sin tiel malfeliĉa, ke li malbenis 
la tagon, en kiu li estis naskita. 8 Mi forte b mal- 
estimas tiun ĉi malnoblan homon. 9 La fenestro 
longe estis nefermita c ; mi ĝin fermis, sed mia frato 
tuj ĝin denove d malfermis. 10 Rekta vojo estas pli 
mallonga, ol kurba. n La tablo staras malrekte, 
kaj kredeble baldaŭ renversiĝos. 12 Li staras supre 
sur la monto kaj rigardas malsupren sur la kampon. 
13 Malamiko venis en nian landon. " Oni tiel mal- 
helpis al mi, ke mi malbonigis mian tutan laboron. 
15 La edzino de mia patro estas mia patrino kaj la 
avino de miaj infanoj. 16 Sur la korto staras koko 
kun tri kokinoj. 17 Mia fratino estas tre bela 
knabino. 18 Mia onklino estas bona virino. 19 Mi 
vidis vian avinon kun ŝiaj kvar nepinoj kaj kun 
mia nevino. 20 Lia duonpatrino estas mia bofra- 
tino. 21 Mi havas bovon kaj bovinon. 22 Lajuna 
vidvino fariĝis denove fianĉino. 

b The use of forte to lend intensity to the verb is, we think, 
an improvement over the English use of adverbs from roots 
of meaning similar to, but not synonomous with, that of the 
verb — dearly love, fiercely hate, etc. 

c Ne here, and not mal. The student will readily grasp 
the difference between opened and not closed. 

d Denove is frequently used for agaiyi. It means anew. 

Exercises 157 


1 My brother is not tall, but he is also not short ; 
he is of medium growth. 2 He is so stout that he 
cannot pass through our narrow door. 3 A hair is 
very fine. * The night was so dark that we could 
see nothing, even before our nose. 5 This stale 
bread is as hard as stone. 6 Bad children like to 
torment animals. 7 He felt so unhappy that he 
cursed the day on which he was born. 8 1 intensely 
despise this ignoble person. 9 The window was 
long open ; I closed it, but my brother immediately 
opened it anew. 10 A straight road is shorter than 
a curved one. n The table stands crookedly 
and, "understandably", will soon be upset. 12 He 
stands above upon the mountain and looks below 
on the field. 13 An enemy entered our land. " They 
hindered me so that I spoiled my whole work. 
15 My father's wife is my mother, and the grand- 
mother of my children. u In the yard stands a 
cock with three hens. " My sister is a very beau- 
tiful girl. 18 My aunt is a good woman. 19 1 saw 
your grandmother with her four granddaughters 
and my niece. 20 His stepmother is my sister-in- 
law 21 1 have an ox and a cow. 22 The young 
widow became again a fiancee. 

1 5 8 

The American Esperanto Book 


viando, meat. 
korko, cork, 
ŝtopi, to stop up, 
kombi, to comb, 
ĝliti, to skate, 
vetero, weather, 
segi, to saw, 
kudri, to sew. 
sonori, to ring, 
inko, ink, 

sorbi, to absord, sip. 
tuko, cloth. 
brava, brave, 
Ŝtupo, step, 
germano, a German, 
vasta, wide, vast. 
paŝti, to pasture. 
precipe, principally. 


poŝ-o, pocket, 
tiri, to draw, pull, drag 
botelo, bottle. 
somero, summer. 
frosto, frost. 
haki, to hew, chop. 
fosi, to dig. 
tondi, to clip, shear, 
fajfi, to whistle 
sablo, sand. 
brando, brandy 
militi, to war, fight. 
kruta, steep. 
hispano, Spaniard. 
tamen, however. 
herbo, grass 
bruto, brute 
lano, wool, 

*La tranĉilo estis tiel malakra, ke mi ne povis 
tranĉi per ĝi la viandon, kaj mi devis uzi mian 
poŝan tranĉilon. 2 Ĉu vi havas korktirilon, por 
malŝtopi la botelon? 3 Mi volis Ŝlosi la pordon, 

Exercises 159 

sed mi perdis la Ŝlosilon. 4 Si kombas al si la 
harojn per arĝenta kombilo. 5 En somero ni veturas 
per diversaj veturiloj, kaj en vintro ni veturas per 
glitveturilo. 6 Hodiaŭ estas bela frosta vetero, 
tial mi prenos miajn glitilojn kaj iros gliti. 7 Per 
hakilo ni hakas, per segilo ni segas, per fosilo ni 
fosas, per kudrilo ni kudras, per tondilo ni tondas, 
per sonorilo ni sonoras, per fajfilo ni fajfas. 8 Mia 
skribilaro konsistas el inkujo, sablujo, kelke da 
plumoj, krajono kaj inksorbilo. 9 Oni metis antaŭ 
mi manĝilaron, kiu konsistis el telero, kulero, 
tranĉilo, forko, glaseto por brando, glaso por vino 
kaj telertuketo. 10 En varmega tago mi amas pro- 
meni en arbaro. " Nia lando venkos, car nia mil- 
itistaro estas granda kaj brava. 12 Sur kruta 
Ŝtuparo li levis sin al la tegmento de la domo. 
13 Mi ne scias la lingvon hispanan, sed per helpo 
de vortaro hispana-germana mi tamen komprenis 
iom vian leteron. " Sur tiuj ĉi vastaj kaj herbo- 
riĉaj kampoj pastas sin grandaj brutaroj, precipe 
aroj da bellanaj ŝafoj. 

1 The knife was so dull that I could not cut the 
meat with it, and I had to use my pocket knife. 

i6o The American Esperanto Book 

2 Have you a corkscrew to open the bottle? 3 I 
wished to lock the door, but I had lost the key. 
* She combs her hair with a silver comb. 5 In the 
summer we travel by means of various vehicles, 
and in winter we travel by sleigh. 6 Today it is 
fine frosty weather, therefore I shall take my 
skates and go skating. 7 With an ax we chop, 
with a saw we saw, with a spade we dig, with a 
needle we sew, with scissors we clip, with a bell 
we ring, with a whistle we whistle. 8 My writing 
outfit consists of an ink-stand, a sand-box, some 
pens, a pencil and a blotter. v They placed before 
me eating utensils, which consisted of a plate, a 
spoon, a knife, a fork, a small glass for brandy, 
a glass for wine, and a napkin. 10 On a hot day I 
like to walk in the forest. n Our country will win 
because our army is large and brave. 18 On a 
steep ladder he climbed to the roof of the house. 
13 1 do not know the Spanish language, but with 
the help of a Spanish-German dictionary I never- 
theless somewhat understood your letter. " Upon 
these vast and fertile fields pasture large herds of 
stock, principally flocks of fine- wool sheep. 

Exercises 161 


konfiti, to preserve. kuko, cake. 

fluida, liquid. suspekti, to suspect. 

acida, sour. vinagro, vinegar. 

sulfuro, sulphur. azoto, azote. 

gusto, taste. alta, high. 

naturo, nature. ĉemizo, shirt. 

kolo, neck. cetera, the rest. 

tolo, linen. glacio, ice. 

heroo, hero. plaĉi, to please. 

lago, lake. kovri, to cover. 

naĝi, to swim. folio, leaf. 
frandi, to be fond of sweets. 

*Vi parolas sensencaĵon, mia amiko. 2 Mi 
trinkis teon kun kuko kaj konfitaĵo. 3 Akvo estas 
fluidaĵo. 4 Mi ne volis trinki la vinon, ĉar ĝi en- 
havis en si ian suspektan malklaraĵon. 6 Sur la 
tablo staris diversaj sukeraĵoj. 6 En tiuj ĉi boteletoj 
sin trovas diversaj acidoj : vinagro, sulfuracido, 
azotacido kaj aliaj. 7 Via vino estas nur ia abomena 
acidaĵo. 8 La acideco de tiu ĉi vinagro estas tre mal- 
forta. 9 Mi manĝis bongustan ovaĵon. 10 Tiu ĉi granda 
altaĵo ne estas natura monto. n La alteco de tiu 
monto ne estas tre granda. 12 Kiam mi ien veturas, 
mi neniam prenas kun mi multon da pakaĵo. 13 Ĉe- 
mizojn, kolumojn, manumojn kaj ceterajn similajn 
objektojn ni nomas tolaĵo, kvankam ili ne ĉiam 
estas faritaj el tolo. " Glaciaĵo estas dolĉa glaci- 

1 62 The American Esperanto Book 

igita frandaĵo. 15 La riĉeco de tiu ĉi homo estas 
granda, sed lia malsaĝeco estas ankoraŭ pli granda. 
16 Li amas tiun ĉi knabinon pro ŝia beleco kaj 
boneco. 17 Lia heroeco tre plaĉis al mi. 18 Latuta 
supraĵo de la lago estis kovrita per naĝantaj folioj 
kaj diversaj aliaj kreskaĵoj. 19 Mi vivas kun li en 
granda amikeco. 


^ou talk nonsense, my friend. 2 I drank tea, 
with cake and preserves. 3 Water is a liquid. *I 
did not wish to drink the wine, because it had in 
it some suspicious unclear matter. 5 Upon the 
table stood various sweetmeats. G In these little 
bottles are various acids : vinegar, sulphuric acid, 
nitric acid and others. 7 Your wine is only some 
kind of abominable acid stuff. 8 The acidity of 
this vinegar is very weak. 9 1 ate a good omelet. 
10 This great eminence is not a natural mountain. 
The height of that mountain is not very great. 
12 When I go anywhere I never take with me much 
baggage. 13 Shirts, collars, cuffs and other similar 
objects we call linen, though they are not always 
made of linen. 14 An ice is a sweet frozen dainty. 
15 The wealth of this man is great, but his foolish- 
ness is still greater. 16 He loves this girl because 
of her beauty and goodness. 17 His heroism pleased 
me very much. 18 The whole surface of the lake 
was covered with floating leaves and various other 
growths. 19 1 live with him in great friendship. 

Exercises 163 


gratuli, to congratulate, altaro, altar. 

kuraci, to heal, treat. doktoro, doctor, 

pra, great-, primordial, hebreo, a Hebrew 
ĉevalo, horse. 

ge, persons of both sexes : patro, father ; ge- 
patroj, parents. 

id', descendant or young of: ĉevalo, a horse ; 
ĉevalido, a colt. 

1 Patro kaj patrino kune estas nomataj gepatroj. 
2 Petro, Anno kaj Elizabeto estas miaj gefratoj. 
3 Gesinjoroj N. hodiaŭ venos al mi. *Mi gratulis 
telegrafe la junajn geedzojn. 5 La gefianĉoj staris 
apud la altaro. 6 La patro demiaedzino estas mia 
bopatro, mi estas lia bofilo, kaj mia patro estas la 
bopatro de mia edzino. 7 Ciuj parencoj de mia 
edzino estas miaj boparencoj, sekve Ŝia frato estas 
mia bofrato, Ŝia fratino estas mia bofratino ; mia 
frato kaj fratino (gefratoj) estas la bogefratoj de 
mia edzino. 8 La edzino de mia nevo kaj la nevo 
de mia edzino estas miaj bonevinoj. 9 Virino, 
kiu kuracas, estas kuracistino ; edzino de kuracisto 
estas kuracistedzino. 10 La doktoredzino A. vizitis 
hodiaŭ la gedoktorojn P. " Li ne estas lavisto, li 

1 64 The American Esperanto Book 

estas lavistinedzo. 12 La filoj, nepoj kaj pranepoj 
de reĝo estas reĝidoj. 13 La hebreoj estas Izrael- 
idoj, car ili devenas de Izraelo. " ĉevalido estas 
nematura ĉevalo, kokido — nematura koko, bovido — 
nematura bovo, birdido — nematura birdo. 

*A father and a mother together are called 
parents. 2 Peter, Anne and Elizabeth are my 
brother and sisters. 3 Mr. and Mrs. N. will come 
to our house today. *I congratulated by 
telegraph the young married couple. 5 The affi- 
anced pair stood at the altar. 6 My wife's father 
is my father-in-law, I am his son-in-law, and my 
father is my wife's father-in-law. 7 All relatives of 
my wife are my relatives-in-law ; consequently her 
brother is my brother-in-law, her sister is my 
sister-in-law ; my brother and sister are the brother- 
and sister-in-law of my wife 8 My nephew's wife 
and my wife's niece are my nieces-in-law. 9 A 
woman who treats the sick is a female physician ; 
a wife of a physician is a physician's wife. 10 The 
wife of Dr. A. visited today Dr. and Mrs. P. n He 
is not a laundryman, he is a laundress' husband. 
12 The sons, grandsons and great-grandsons of a 
king are princes. 13 The Hebrews are Israelites 
because they are descended from Israel. 14 A colt 
is an immature horse, a chick an immature chicken, 
a calf an immature cow, a fledgling an imma- 
ture bird, 

Exercises 165 


regno, state, kingdom. provinco, province. 

severa, severe. justa, just, righteous. 

polico, police. sufiĉe, enough. 

Kristo, Christ. franco, a Frenchman. 

konfesi, to confess. religio, religion. 

regimento, regiment. boto, boot. 

ŝuo, shoe. lasi, to leave, let alone. 

droni, to drown. verki, to compose. 

eĉ, even. ombro, shadow. 

preĝi, to pray. virga, virginal. 

an, inhabitant, member, partisan : Nov-Jorko, 
New York ; Nov-Jorkano, New- Yorker. 

ul\ a person noted for: avara, covetous ; ava- 
rulo, a miser. 

*La Ŝipanoj devas obei la Ŝipestron. 2 Ĉiuj 
loĝantoj de regno estas regnanoj. 3 Urbanoj estas 
ordinare pli ruzaj, ol vilaĝanoj. *La regnestro de 
nia lando estas bona kaj saĝa reĝo. 5 La Parizanoj 
estas gajaj homoj. 6 Nia provincestro estas severa, 
sed justa. 7 Nia urbo havas bonajn policanojn, 
sed ne sufiĉe energian policestron. 8 Luteranoj kaj 
Kalvinanoj estas kristanoj. °Germanoj kaj francoj, 

1 66 The American Esperanto Book 

kiuj loĝas en Rusujo, estas Rusujanoj, kvankam ili 
ne estas rusoj. 10 Li estas nelerta kaj naiva pro- 
vincano. u La loĝantoj de unu regno estas sam- 
regnanoj, la loĝantoj de unu urbo estas samurbanoj, 
la konfesantoj de unu religio estas samreligianoj. 
12 Nia regimentestro estas por siaj soldatoj kiel 
bona patro. 13 La botisto faras botojn kaj Ŝuojn. 
"La lignisto vendas lignon, kaj la lignaĵisto faras 
tablojn, seĝojn kaj aliajn lignajn objektojn. 15 ŝtel- 
iston neniu lasas en sian domon. 16 La kuraĝa 
maristo dronis en la maro. 17 Verkisto verkas 
librojn, kaj skribisto simple transskribas paperojn. 
18 Ni havas diversajn servantojn : kuiriston, ĉam- 
bristinon, infanistinon kaj veturigiston. 19 La riĉulo 
havas multe da mono. 20 Malsaĝulon ĉiu batas. 
21 Timulo timas eĉ sian propran ombron. 22 Li estas 
mensogisto kaj malnoblulo. 23 Preĝu al la Sankta 


1 The sailors ought to obey the captain. 2 A11 
inhabitants of a state are citizens. 3 City people 
are usually more cunning than villagers. 4 The 
ruler of our country is a good and wise king. 
6 The Parisians are gay people. 6 Our governor is 

Exercises 167 

strict, but just. 7 Our city has good policemen, 
but not a sufficiently energetic chief of police. 
8 Lutherans and Calvinists are Christians^ 9 Ger- 
mans who live in Russia are Russian citizens, 
though they are not Russians. 10 He is an awk- 
ward and simple provincial. " The inhabitants of 
one country are fellow-countrymen, the inhabitants 
of one city are fellow-citizens, the believers of one 
religion are fellow-religionists. 12 Our regimental 
commander is like a good father to his soldiers. 
13 The shoemaker makes boots and shoes. u The 
wood dealer sells wood and the joiner makes tables, 
chairs, and other wooden articles, 15 No one lets 
a thief into his house. 16 The brave sailor was 
drowned in the sea. 17 An author writes books, 
and a copyist simply copies papers. 18 We have 
various servants — a cook, a chambermaid, a nurse, 
and a coachman. 19 The rich man has much money, 
20 Everybody beats a fool. 21 A coward fears even 
his own shadow. 22 He is a liar and an ignoble 
person. 23 Pray to the Holy Virgin. 

1 68 The American Esperanto Book 


densa, dense» brui, to make a noise, 

kaleŝo, carriage. pluvo, rain. 

pafi, to shoot. 

ĉj, masculine, nj, feminine; suffixes used after 
the first (i to 6) letters of names, to form endear- 
ing diminutives. 

1 Mi aĉetis por la infanoj tableton kaj kelke da 
seĝetoj. 2 En nia lando sin ne trovas montoj, sed 
nur montetoj. 3 Tuj post la hejto la forno estis 
varmega, post unu horo ĝi estis jam nur varma, 
post du horoj ĝi estis nur iom varmeta, kaj post 
tri horoj ĝi estis jam tute malvarma. *En somero 
ni trovas malvarmeton en densaj arbaroj. Li 
sidas apud la tablo kaj dormetas. 6 Mallarĝa 
vojeto kondukas tra tiu ĉi kampo al nia domo. 
7 Sur lia vizaĝo mi vidis ĝojan rideton. 8 Kun bruo 
oni malfermis la pordegon, kaj la kaleŝo enveturis 
en la korton. 9 Tio ĉi estis jam ne simpla pluvo, 
sed pluvego. 10 Grandega hundo metis sur min 
sian antaŭan piedegon, kaj mi de teruro ne sciis, 
kion fari. " Antaŭ nia militistaro staris granda 
serio da pafilegoj. 12 Johanon, Nikolaon, Erneston, 

Exercises 169 

Vilhelmon, Marion, Klaron kaj Sofion iliaj gepatroj 
nomas Johanĉjo (aŭ Joĉjo), Nikolĉjo (aŭ Nikoĉjo 
aŭ Nikĉjo aŭ NiĈjo), ErneĈjo (aŭ ErĈjo), Vilhelĉjo 
(aŭ Vilheĉjo aŭ Vilĉjo aŭ Viĉjo), Manjo (aŭ 
Marinjo), Klanjo kaj Sonjo (aŭ Sofinjo). 


1 1 bought for the children a little table and 
some little chairs. 2 In our country there are no 
mountains, but only hills. 3 Immediately after 
heating, the stove was hot, after an hour it was 
only warm, after two hours it was only somewhat 
warm, and after three hours it was entirely cold. *In 
summer we find coolness in dense forests. 6 He 
sits near the table and dozes. 6 A narrow path 
leads through this field to our house. ' Upon his 
face I saw a happy smile. 8 Noisily they opened 
the gate, and the carriage drove into the yard. 

9 This was no longer a simple rain, but a flood. 

10 An enormous dog put his forepaw upon me, and 
from terror I did not know what to do. n In front 


of our army stood a large array of cannon. 12 John, 
Nicholas, Ernest, William, Mary, Clara and Sophia, 
their parents call Johnnie, Nick, Ernie, Willie, 
Mollie, Clarie, Sophie. 

170 The American Esperanto Book 


koto, dirt. broso, brush. 

ruĝa, red. honti, to be ashamed. 

solena, solemn. infekti, to infect. 

printempo, springtime, relo, rail. 
rado, wheel. pendi, to hang, 

capo, cap, bonnet. vento, wind, 

blovi, to blow. kapo, head. 

branĉo, branch. 

1 En la kota vetero mia vesto forte rA&lpvtiriĝiS' 
tial mi prenis broson kaj purigis a la veston. 2 Li 
paliĝis de timo kaj poste li ruĝiĝis de> honto. 8 Li 
fianĉiĝis kun f raŭlino Berto ; post tri monatoj estos 
la edziĝo ; la edziĝa soleno estos en la nova preĝejo, 
kaj la edziĝa festo estos en la domo de liaj estontaj 
bogepatroj. * Tiu ĉi maljunulo tute malsaĝiĝis kaj 
infaniĝis. 5 Post infekta malsano oni ofte bruligas 
la vestojn de la malsanulo. G Forigu vian fraton, 
car li malhelpas al ni. " ŝi edziniĝis kun sia 
kuzo, kvankam ŝiaj gepatroj volis ŝin edzinigi kun 
alia persono. 8 En la printempo la glacio kaj la 
neĝo fluidiĝas. 9 Venigu la kuraciston, car mi estas 

Exercises 1 71 

malsana. 10 Li venigis al si el Berlino multajn 
librojn. n Mia onklo ne mortis per natura morto, 
sed li tamen ne mortigis sin mem kaj ankaŭ estis 
mortigita de neniu ; unu tagon, promenante apud 
la reloj de fervojo, li falis suMa radojn de veturanta 
vagonaro kaj mortiĝis. 12 Mi ne pendigis mian 
ĉapon sur tiu ĉi arbeto ; sed la vento forblovis de 
mia kapo la capon, kaj ĝi, flugante, pendiĝis sur la 
branĉoj de la arbeto. 13 Sidigu vin (aŭ sidiĝu), sin- 
joro ! u La junulo aliĝis al nia militistaro kaj 
kuraĝe batalis kune kun ni kontraŭ niaj malamikoj. 

a Study carefully the distinction between ig and iĝ. The 
former is always transitive, while the latter is intransitive : 
purigi, to clean ; puriĝi, to become clean. Sentences 7 and 11 
well illustrate this difference. 


1 In the muddy weather my coat became very 
dirty ; therefore, I took a brush and cleaned the 
coat. 2 He turned pale with fear, and afterwards 
he blushed with shame. 3 He became engaged to 
Miss Bertha ; three months hence will be the 
wedding ; the marriage ceremony will be in the 
new church, and the wedding festival will be in the 

172 The American Esperanto Book 

house of his future parents-in-law. 4 This old man 
has become quite imbecile and childish. 5 After an 
infectious disease they often burn the clothes of 
the patient. 6 Send your brother away, for he 
hinders us. 7 She married her cousin, although her 
parents wished to marry her to another person. 
8 In spring the ice and snow melt. 9 Bring the 
doctor, because I am ill. 10 He procured for him- 
self many books from Berlin. n My uncle did not 
die a natural death, but, however, he did not 
kill himself, and was not killed by anyone ; one 
day, while walking near the rails of the railroad, 
he fell under the wheels of a moving train and was 
killed. 12 I did not hang my cap upon this 
shrub ; but the wind blew the cap from my head, 
and it, flying, hung itself on the branches of the 
shrub. 13 Seat yourself (or, be seated), sir. " The 
youth joined our army and fought bravely, together 
with us, against our enemies. 

Exercises 173 


surprizi, to surprise. laca, tired, weary. 
trompi, deceive, cheat, fulmo, lightning, 
ŝviti, sweat, perspire. bani, to bathe. 
magazeno, store. vendi, to sell. 

cigaro, cigar. tubo, tube. 

fumo, smoke. skatolo, small box, cast. 

pantalono, pants. surtuto, overcoat. 

brako, arm. 
ing, a holder for a single object : cigaringo, 
cigar-holder', kandelingo, candle-stick. 

1 En la daŭro de kelke da minutoj mi aŭdis du 
pafojn. 2 La pafado daŭris tre longe. 3 Mi eksaltis 
de surprizo. * Mi saltas tre lerte, 8 Mi saltadis la 
tutan tagon de loko al loko. e Lia hieraŭa parolo 
estis tre bela, sed la tro multa parolado lacigas 
lin. 7 Kiam vi ekparolis, ni atendis audi ion novan, 
sed baldaŭ ni vidis, ke ni trompiĝis. 8 Li kantas 
tre belan kanton. 9 La kantado estas agrabla 
okupo. 10 La diamanto havas belan brilon. n Du 
ekbriloj de fulmo trakuris tra la malluma ĉielo. 
12 La domo, en kiu oni lernas, estas lernejo, kaj la 
domo, en kiu oni preĝas, estas preĝejo. 13 La kuiristo 

174 The American Esperanto Book 

sidas en la kuirejo. 14 La kuracisto konsilis al mi iri en 
ŝvitbanejon. 15 Magazeno, en kiu oni vendas cigarojn, 
aŭ ĉambro, en kiu oni tenas cigarojn, estas cigarejo; 
skatoleto aŭ alia objekto, en kiu oni tenas cigarojn, 
estas cigarujo ; tubeto, en kiu oni metas cigaron, 
kiam oni ĝin fumas, estas cigaringo. 16 Skatolo, 
en kiu oni tenas plumojn, estas plumujo, kaj bas- 
toneto, sur kiu oni tenas plumon por skribado, 
estas plumingo. 17 En la kandelingo sidas brulanta 
kandelo. 18 En la poŝo de mia pantolono mi portas 
monujon, kaj en la poŝo de mia surtuto mi portas 
paperujon ; pli grandan paperujon mi portas sub la 
brako. 19 La rusoj loĝas en Rusujo kaj la germanoj 
en Germanujo. 


1 In the course of a few minutes I heard two 
shots. 2 The shooting continued very long. 8 I 
jumped from surprise. * I jump very skilfully. I 
jumped all day from place to place. 6 His speech of 
yesterday was very fine, but too much speaking tires 
him. 7 When you began to speak, we expected to hear 
something new, but soon saw that we were deceived. 
8 He is singing a very beautiful song. 9 Singing is an 
agreeable occupation. 10 The diamond has a beau- 

Exercises 175 

tiful sparkle. n Two flashes of lightning passed 
across the dark sky. 12 The house in which people 
learn is a school-house, and the house in which 
which they pray is a church. I3 The cook sits in 
the kitchen. u The doctor advised me to go to a 
Turkish bath. 15 A store in which they sell cigars, 
or a room in which they keep cigars, is a cigar- 
store ; a small box or other object in which people 
keep cigars is a cigar-case ; a little tube in which 
one puts a cigar when he smokes it, is a cigar- 
holder. 16 A box in which we keep pens is a pen- 
case, and a little stick, on which we have a pen for 
writing, is a penholder. 17 In the candlestick is a 
burning candle. 18 In the pocket of my trousers 
I carry a purse, and in the pocket of my overcoat 
I carry a pocketbook ; a larger document-case I 
carry under my arm. 19 Russians live in Russia, 
and Germans in Germany. 

176 The American Esperanto Book 

ŝtalo, steel, fleksi, to bend. 

vitro, glass. rompi, to break. 

laŭdi, to praise. memori, to remember. 

Ŝpari, to economize. bagatelo, trifle. 

venĝi, to avenge. eksciti, to excite. 

polvo, dust. fajro, fire. 

eksplodi, to explode. pulvo, gunpowder. 
er, one of many objects of the same kind : sablo, 
sand', sablero, a grain of sand. 

*ŝtalo estas fleksebla, sed fero ne estas fleksebla. 
2 Vitro estas rompebla kaj travidebla. 3 Ne ĉiu 
kreskaĵo estas manĝebla. * Via parolo estas tute 
nekomprenebla kaj viaj leteroj estas ĉiam skribitaj 
tute nelegeble. 5 Rakontu al mi vian malfeliĉon, 
car eble mi povos helpi al vi. 6 Li rakontis al mi 
historion tute nekredeblan. 7 Ĉu vi amas vian 
patron? 8 Kia demando ! kompreneble, ke mi lin 
amas. 9 Mi kredeble ne povos veni al vi hodiaŭ, 
car mi pensas, ke mi mem havos hodiaŭ gastojn. 
10 Li estas homo ne kredinda. " Via ago estas tre 
laŭdinda. 12 Tiu ĉi grava tago restos por mi ĉiam 
memorinda. 13 Lia edzino estas tre laborema kaj 
ŝparema, sed si estas ankaŭ tre babilema kaj 
kriema. u Li estas tre ekkolerema kaj ekscitiĝas 
ofte ĉe la plej malgranda bagatelo ; tamen li estas 
tre pardonema, li ne portas longe la koleron kaj li 
tute ne estas venĝema. 15 Li estas tre kredema : 
eĈ la plej nekredeblajn aferojn, kiujn rakontas al li 

Exercises 177 

la plej nekredindaj homoj, li tuj kredas. 16 Cen- 
time», pfenigo kaj kopeko estas moneroj. 17 Sablero 
enfalis en mian okulon. 18 Li estas tre purema, 
kaj eĉ unu polveron vi ne trovos sur lia vesto. 
19 Unu fajrero estas sufiĉa, por eksplodigi pulvon. 


1 Steel is flexible, but iron is not flexible. 
2 Glass is brittle and transparent. 3 Not every 
plant is edible. 4 Your speech is quite incompre- 
hensible, and your letters are always written quite 
illegibly. 6 Tell me your unhappiness, for possibly 
I shall be able to help you. 6 He told me a totally 
incredible story. 7 Do you love your father? 
8 What a question! Of course I love him. 9 I 
shall probably not be able to come to your house 
today, for I think that I myself shall have guests 
today. 10 He is a man unworthy of belief. "Your 
act is very praiseworthy. 12 This important day 
will ever remain memorable for me. 13 His wife is 
very industrious and thrifty, but she is also very 
talkative and noisy. u He is very quick-tempered, 
and often becomes excited at the smallest trifle ; 
however, he is very forgiving, he does not bear 
anger long and is not at all vengeful. 15 He is very 
credulous ; even the most incredible things, which 
the most untrustworthy people tell him, he at once 
believes. 16 A centime, a pfennig and a kopek are 
coins, 1? A grain of sand fell into my eye. 18 He 
is very clean, and 3>-ou will not find even a single 
speck of dust on his coat. 19 One spark is sufficient 
to explode gunpowder. 

178 The American Esperanto Book 


atingi, to attain. rezultato, result. 

ŝiri, to tear, rend. peco, piece. 

moŝto, universal title, episkopo, bishop. 

grafo, earl, count. difini, to define. 

*Ni ĉiuj kunvenis, por priparoli tre gravan aferon; 
sed ni ne povis atingi ian rezultaton, kaj ni disiris. 
2 MalfeliĈo ofte kunigas la homojn, kaj feliĉo ofte 
disigas ilin. 8 Mi disŝiris la leteron kaj disĵetis 
ĝiajn pecetojn en ciujn angulojn de la ĉambro. 
*Li donis al mi monon, sed mi ĝin tuj redonis al li. 

5 Mi foriras, sed atendu min, car mi baldaŭrevenos. 

6 La suno rebrilas en la klara akvo de la rivero. 

7 Mi diris al la reĝo : via reĝa moŝto, pardonu min! 

8 El la tri leteroj unu estis adresita : al Lia Epis- 
kopa Moŝto, Sinjoro N.; .la dua : al lia Graf a 
MoŜto, Sinjoro P.; la tria: al Lia Moŝto, Sinjoro 
D. 9 La sufikso urn ne havas difinitan signifon, 
kaj tial la (tre malmultajn) vortojn kun urn oni 
devas lerni, kiel simplajn vortojn. 10 Ekzemple: 
plenumi, kolumo, manumo. " Mi volonte plenumis 
lian deziron. 12 En malbona vetero oni povas facile 
malvarmumi. Sano, sana, sane, sani, sanu, san- 
iga, saneco, sanilo, sanigi, saniĝi, sanejo, sanisto, 
sanulo, malsano, malsana, malsane, malsani, mal- 
sanulo, malsaniga, malsaniĝi, malsaneta, malsan- 
ema, malsanulejo, malsanulisto, malsanero, mal- 
saneraro, sanigebla, sanigisto, sanigilo, sanilo, 

Exercises 179 

resanigi, resaniĝanto, sanigilejo, sanigejo, malsan- 
emulo, sanilaro, malsanaro, malsanulido, nesana, 
malsanado, sanilaĵo, malsaneco, malsanemeco, 
saniginda, sanilujo, sanigilujo, remalsano, remal- 
saniĝo, malsanulino, sanigista, sanigilista, sanil- 
ista, malsanulista 3, k. t. p. 

1 We all convened to discuss a very important 
matter, but we could not attain any result, and we 
separated. 2 Unhappiness often unites people and 
and happiness often separates them. 3 1 tore up 
the letter and scattered its fragments into all cor- 
ners of the room. * He gave me money, but I 
immediately returned it to him. 5 1 am going 
away, but await me, as I shall soon return. 6 The 
sun reflects in the clear water of the river. 7 1 
said to the king: " Your Majesty, pardon me ! " 
8 Of the three letters, one was addressed : "To His 
Reverence, Bishop N."; the second: "To His 
Excellency, Count P."; the third : "To The Hon- 
orable Mr. D." 9 The suffix um has no definite 
meaning, and therefore the (very few) words with 
um one should learn as simple words. 10 For ex- 
ample : plenumi, kolumo, manumo. n I willingly 
fulfilled his desire. 12 In bad weather one can 
easily catch cold. 

a The fifty-three words shown here from the root san' are 
self-defining and serve to illustrate the wide latitude of ex- 
pression which may be had by use of the affixes. 

i8o The American Esperanto Book 


In the date-line of a letter, we usually omit the 
preposition je and write the day of the month with 
accusative sign following the figures : 

St. Louis, /£ an de Aŭgusto, 1908. 
San Francisko, 26™ de Marto, 1914. 

Everyone may safely use his own taste as to 
the form of salutation, conforming, however, to the 
relations between adresanto and adresato. By a 
peculiar paradox, the most formal style of address 
for Americans, "My Dear MaHam", is far from 
formality in its literal meaning, and should the 
average European be addressed as Mia Kara he 
would infer at least some degree of affection. A 
few of the many forms of greeting are : 

Sinjoroj : 

Respektata Sinjorino : 
Tre Estimata Amiko : 
Kara Kolego : 
Kara Satnideano 3, : 

The forms of closing letters are much the same 
as in English : 

Kun plena respekto, 

Tre vere via, 

Kun granda estimo, etc., etc. 

a Sam-ide-an-o, a fellozu-thinker. 

Correspondence 181 

Modelaj Leteroj 

Al Administranto de Amerika Esperantisto, 

Ĉikago, U. Ŝ. A. 
Sinjoro : 

Tralerninte mian lernolibron kun treega intereso, 
kaj dezirante lernadi pli multe pri Esperanto, kiel 
ankaŭ uzadi mian ĝis nun akiritan scion, mi sendas 
enfermite mandaton por la sumo da unu dolaro kaj 
dudek-kvin cendoj. Aminde enskribu mian nomon 
kiel abonanto al via gazeto dum unu jaro, komen- 
conta je la oktobra kajero. Ankaŭ, enpresu kiel 
eble plej frue, la sekvantan anonceton : 

Dekses-j'ara esperantistino deziras korespondadi 
kun kelkaj geartistoj de fremdaj landoj pri la inter- 
ŝanĝo de artaĵetojn, kuriozaĵojn, k. t. p. Afable sin 
turnu al\ Fno. Gladys Nelson^ 23 Paul Avenue , 
Suite 16, Nov- Yorko, 

Esperante ke vi baldaŭ plenumos mian mendon, 
mi estas, sinjoro, 

Tre respekte la via, 

(Fraŭlino) Gladys Nelson. 

Urbo Nov-Jorko, i6 an de Septembro, 1907. 
23 Paul Avenue, Suite 16. 

1 82 The American Esperanto Book 

Toronto, Kanado, i7 an de Aprilo, 1908. 
D ro W. F. Cody, 

Galveston, Texas, U. ŝ. A. 
Mia Kara Samideano : 

Respondante vian leteron pri la reciproka inter- 
San ĝado de manuskriptoj predikaj, mi povas diri ke 
mi multe aprobas la projekton. Per tiu ĉi farado 
ni sendube ricevos multe da helpon, kaj plibonigos 
nian laboradon. Mi sendas al vi per la sama poŝto 
lanotojn de mia hieraŭa prediko, titolita "Ju pli da 
Sapo, des pli da Sankteco." Mi vere kredas ke oni 
ne povas purigi la morojn de la amasoj ĝis kiam 
ili havos sufiĉe da riĉeco por ĝui purajn domojn, 
puran aeron kaj purajn vestojn. Ĉu vi opinias ke 

mi eraras? 

Frate via, 

Charles Saunders Hamm. 

Novembro la 6 an , 1906. 
Sekretario de 1' Alĝera Esperantista Societo, 

4, rue du Marine, Algero, Alĝerujo. 
Respektata Sinjoro : 

ĉu vi povas doni al mi, poŝtkarte, adreson de 
juna alĝera esperantistino kiu kredeble Ŝatus kores- 
pondi kun nord-amerika samideanino? Mi multe 
interesas pri la afero nia en Afriko, kaj deziras pli 
detale sciiĝi. Kun kora danko pro via komplezo, 
mi subskribas min, sinjoro, 

Via humila servantino, 

Alberta V. Edwards. 
Adreso: Griff, Mo., U. ŝ. A. 

Correspondence 183 

Especially in correspondence with foreign per- 
sons, one should be careful to write plainly, as to 
many of these Esperanto script is not easy to read 
unless clearly written. Be particularly careful as 
to name and address. We Americans, many of 
whom habitually use figures of speech called slang 
while new, and good English when the gloss is worn 
off, must remember that such language cannot be 
translated. An Indiana man writes me that a 
certain book is a -persiko. He is a rare American 
who doesn't know what is meant by a metaphorical 
"peach," and most Europeans would understand 
if we mentioned "bird"; but to the home-grown 
Japanese or Maori these words would indicate 
things pertaining to horticulture and ornithology. 

184 The American Esperanto Book 


La sekvanta Deklaracio estis eldonata de la Unua 
Internacia Kongreso Esperantista en Boulogne-sur- 
Mer, la gan de Aŭgusto, 190S' 

car pri la esenco de la esperantismo multaj 
havas tre malveran ideon, tial ni subskribintoj, 
reprezentantoj de la esperantismo en diversaj landoj 
de la mondo, kunvenintaj al la Internacia Kongreso 
Esperantista en Boulogne-sur-Mer, trovis necese 
laŭ la proponO de la aŭtoro de Esperanto doni la 
sekvantan klarigon. 

1. La esperantismo estas penado disvastigi en 
la tuta mondo la uzadon de lingvo neŭtrale noma, 
kiu, "ne entrudante sin en la internan vivon de la 
popoloj kaj neniom celante elpuŝi la ekzistantajn 
lingvojn naciajn," donus al la homoj de malsamaj 
nacioj la eblon kompreniĝadi inter si, kiu povos 
servi kiel paciga lingvo en publikaj institucioj de 
tiuj landoj, kie diversaj nacioj batalas inter si pri 
la lingvo, kaj en kiu povos esti publikigataj tiuj 
verkoj, kiuj havas egalan intereson por ĉiuj popo- 
loj. ĉiu alia ideo aŭ espero, kiun tiu aŭ alia 
esperantisto ligas kun la esperantismo, estas lia 
afero pure privata por kiu la esperantismo ne 

2. car en la nuna tempo neniu esploranto jam 

La Esperantismo 185 

dubas pri tio, ke lingvo internacia povas esti nur 
lingvo arta, kaj ĉar el ĉiuj multegaj provoj faritaj 
en la daŭro de la lastaj du centjaroj, ĉiuj prezentas 
nur teoriajn projektojn, kaj lingvo efektive finita, 
ĉiuflanke elprovita, perfekte vivipova kaj en ĉiuj 
rilatoj pleje taŭga montriĝis nur unu sola lingvo, 
Esperanto; tial la amikoj de la ideo de lingvo^ 
internacia, konsciante ke teoria diskiitado kondukos 
al nenio kaj ke la celo povas esti atingita nur per 
laborado praktika, jam de longe ĉiuj grupiĝis ĉirkaŭ 
la sola lingvo Esperanto kaj laboras por ĝia disvas- 
tigado kaj la riĉigado de ĝia literature 

3. car la aŭtoro de la lingvo Esperanto tuj en 
la komenco rifuzis unuf oje por ĉiam ĉiujn personajn 
rajtojn kaj privilegiojn rilate tiun lingvon, tial 
Esperanto estas "nenies propraĵo" nek en rilato 
materiala, nek en rilato morala. Materiala majstro 
de tiu ĉi lingvo estas la tuta mondo kaj ĉiu dezi- 
ranto povas eldonadi en aŭ pri tiu ĉi lingvo ĉiajn 
verkojn, kiajn li deziras, kaj uzadi la lingvon por 
ĉiaj eblaj celoj ; kiel spiritaj majstroj de tiu ĉi 
lingvo estos ĉiam rigardataj tiuj personoj, kiuj de 
la mondo esperantista estos konfesataj kiel la plej 
bonaj kaj plej talentaj verkistoj de tiu ĉi lingvo. 

4. Esperanto havas neniun personan leĝdonan- 
ton kaj dependas de neniu aparta homo. Opinioj 
kaj verkoj de la kreinto de Esperanto havas, simile 
al la opinioj kaj verkoj de ĉiu alia esperantisto, 
karakteron absolute privatan kaj por neniu devigan. 
La sola unufoje por ĉiam deviga por ĉiuj esperan- 

1 86 The American Esperanto Book 

tistoj fundamento de la lingvo Esperanto estas la 
verketo "Fundamento de Esperanto," en kiu neniu 
havas la rajton fari ŝanĝon. Se iu dekliniĝas de la 
reguloj kaj modeloj donitaj en la dirita verko, li 
neniam povos pravigi sin perlavortoj "tiel deziras 
aŭ konsilas la aŭtoro de Esperanto." Ĉiun ideon, 
kiu ne povas esti oportune esprimata per tiu mate- 
rialo, kiu troviĝas en la "Fundamento de Esperan- 
to," ĉiu esperantisto havas la rajton esprimi en tia 
maniero, kiun li trovas la plej ĝusta, tiel same, kiel 
estas farate en ĉiu alia lingvo. Sed pro plena 
unueco de la lingvo al ĉiuj esperantistoj estas 
rekomendate imitadi kiel eble plej multe tiun 
stilon, kiu troviĝas en la verkoj de la kreinto de 
Esperanto, kiu la plej multe laboris por kaj en 
Esperanto, kaj la plej bone konas ĝian spiriton. 

5. Esperantisto estas nomate ĉiu persono, kiu 
scias kaj uzas la lingvon Esperanto, tute egale, por 
kiaj celoj li ĝin uzas. Apartenado al ia aktiva societo 
esperantista por ĉiu esperantisto estas rekomend- 
inda, sed de deviga. 


The following Esperanto-English Vocabulary 
contains all of the word-roots found in the Funda- 
viento de Esperanto, with some hundreds of others 
in general use. The student must understand that 
the great majority of these roots can be changed 
by the addition of the various grammatical endings 
and of the prefixes and suffixes ; so that, having 
appropriated a thousand Esperanto roots, he will 
possess a working vocabulary of several thousand 

The English-Esperanto Vocabulary is merely a 
supplementary help, to assist the student in finding 
the root connected with the idea he has in mind. 
It contains few feminine nouns, these being formed 
from the general or masculine term by adding the 
suffix in. Hundreds of words for which Esperanto 
has no root equivalent are translated by the word 
of contrary meaning, with the prefix mat. The 
method of word-building is shown in the following 
series of words from the root for health : 

Sano, health. 
Sani, to be healthy. 
Sana, healthy. 
Sane, healthfully. 
Sanigi, to make healthy. 


Saniĝi, to become healthy. 
Malsani, to be ill. 
Malsano, sickness. 
Malsaneco, the state of being sick. 
Sanulo, a healthy person. 
Malsanulo, an invalid. 
Resanigebla, curable. 
Nesanigebla, incurable. 
Malsanulejo, a sanitarium, hospital 
Resaniĝanta, convalescent. 
Remalsaniĝi, to suffer a relapse. 
Malsanema, sickly. 
Malsanero, a malady. 
Malsaneraro, a category of diseases. 
Sanemulino, a healthily-inclined female. 
Sanigilo, a medicine. 
Sanigilaro, materia medic a. 
Sanigisto, a physician. 
Malsaneto, a slight disease. 
Malsanego, a very serious malady. 
Sanigilujo, a medicine case. 
Etc., etc,, etc. See full list of affixes, pp. 65 
to 69. 


Esperanto- English Vocabulary 

a, adjective ending 
abat-o, abbot 
abel-o, bee 
aberaci-o, aberration 
abi-o, fir 

abisen-o, Abysinnian 
abism-o, abyss 
abiturient-o, abiturient 
ablativ-o, ablative 
abomen-o, abomination 
abon-i, to subscribe to 
abnegaci-o, abnegation 
abrikot-o, apricot 
abrotan-o, southern- 
abrupt-a, abrupt 
absces-o, abscess 
absin-to, absinthe 
absolut-a, absolute 
absolutism-o, absolut- 
absolv-i, to absolve 
absorb-i, to absorb 
abstemi-a, abstemious 
abstinenc-o, abstinence 
abstrakt-a, abstract 
absurd-a, absurd 
acer-o, maple 
acetat-o, acetate 
acetile-no, acetylene 

acid-a, sour 
acet-i, to buy 
ad, suffix indicating con- 
tinued action : paroli, 
to speak ; parolado, 
a speech 
adapt-i, to adapt 
adekvat-a, adequate 
adept-o, adept 
adiaŭ, farewell 
adici-i, to add 
adjektiv-o, adjective 
adjunkt-o, adjunct 
adjutant-o, adjutant 
administr-i, administer 
administraci-o, admin- 
istration, management 
admir-i, to admire 
admiral-o, admiral 
admiralitat-o, admi- 
admon-i, to admonish 
adopt-i, to adopt 
ador-i, worship, adore 
adres-i, to address 
adstring-a, astringent 
adult-i, to commit adul- 
adverb-o, adverb 
advent-o, advent 

Esperanto-E?iglish Vocabulary 

advokat-o, attorney, 

aer-o, air ; aerumi, to 

aerometr-o, aerometer 

aeronaŭtik-o, aeronaut- 

aerostat-o, aerostat 

afabl-a, affable 

afekci-o, affection (not 

afekt-i, to affect 

afer-o, affair, matter 

aforism-o, aphorism 

afiks-o, affix 

afiŝ-o, placard 

afrank-i, to pay postage 

Afrik-o, Africa 

afust-o, gun-carriage 

ag-i, to act 

agac-i, to set the teeth 
on edge 

agarik-o, mushroom 

agat-o, agate 

agend-o, note-book 

agent-o, agent 

agit-i, to agitate (jW.) 

agiot-o, a speculation in 

agl-o, eagle 

aglomer-i, to agglom- 

aglutin-i, to agglutinate 

agoni-o, agony 

agord-i, to tune 

agrabl-a, agreeable 

agraf-o, metal clasp 

agregat-o, aggregate 

agrikultur-o, agricul- 

agronomi-o, agronomy 

aĝ-o, age 

ajl-o, garlic 

ajn ever : kiam ajn, 

aĵ, something made from 
or possessing the 
quality of : bovo, ox ; 
bovaĵo, beef) bela, 
beautiful; belaĵo, a 
beautiful thing: 

akaci-o, acacia 

akademi-o, academy 

akapar-i, to "corner 
the market" of 

akar-o, mite, tick 

akcel-i, to hasten, ac- 

akcent-o, accent 

akcept-i, to accept 

akcesor-o, accessory 

akci-o, share of stock 

akcident-o, accident 

akcipitr-o, hawk 

akciz-o, excise 

akir-i, to acquire 

aklam-i, to acclaim 

akn-o, pimple 

akompan-i, to accom- 

akomod-i, accommodate 
to, to fit 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 

akonit-o, aconite 
akord-o, chord {music) 
akr-a, sharp 
akrid-o, grasshopper 
akrobat-o, acrobat 
aks-o, axle 
aksel-o, axle-hole 
aksiom-o, axiom 
akt-o, act (theatrical) 
aktiv-a, active {gram,) 
aktor-o, actor 
akurat-a, accurate 
akustik-o, accoustics 
akuŝ-i, to deliver a 

akut-a, acute 
akuzativ-o, accusative 
akv-o, water 
akvafort-o, aquafortis 
akvarel-o, a painting 

in water-color 
akvari-o, aquarium 
al, to or toward 
alabastr-o, alabaster 
alarm-o, alarm 
alaŭd-o, lark (bird) 
alban-o, Albanian 
albinos-o, albino 
album-o, album 
albumen-o, albumen 
alcion-o, halcyon 
ald-o, alto 
ale-o, walk, path 
alegori-o, allegory 
alen-o, awl 
alfabet-o, alphabet 

alg-oj, sea-weed 

algebr-o, algebra 

Alĝeri-o, Algiers 

alĥemi-o, alchemy 

ali-a, other 

ali-e, otherwise 

alibi-o, alibi 

aline-o, paragraph or 
break in printing 

aligator-o, alligator 

alk-o, elk 

alkali-o, alkali 

alkohol-o, alcohol 

alkoy-o, alcove 

almanak-o, almanac 

almenaŭ, at least 

almoz-o, alms 

aln-o, alder 

alo-o, aloes 

alopati-o, allopathy 

Alp-oj, Alps 

alpak-o, alpaca 

alt-a, high 

altar-o, altar 

alte-o, marshmallow 

altern-i, to alternate 

alternativ-o, an alter- 

alumet-o, match 

alun-o, alum 

alud-i, to allude to 

amalgam-o, amalgam 

amas-o, crowd 

amator-o, amateur 

ambasador-o, ambassa- 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

ambaŭ, both 
ambici-o, ambition 
ambl-o, amble 
ambos-o, anvil 
ambr-o, ambergris 
ambrozi-o, ambrosia 
ambulanc-o, ambulance 
amel-o, starch 
amen! amen! 
Amerik-o, America 
ametist-o, amethyst 
amfibi-a, amphibious 
amfiteatr-o, amphithe- 
amik-o, friend 
amindum-i, make love 
amnesti-o, amnesty 
amoniak-o, ammoniac 
ampleks-o, extent, size 
amput-i, amputate 
amuz-i, to amuse 
an, suffix indicating a 
member, citizen, par- 
tisan, etc.: Ameriko, 
America; Amerikano, 
an American 
anagram-o, anagram 

analiz-i, to analyze 
analogi-o, analogy 
analitik-o, analytics 
ananas-o, pineapple 
anarhi-o, anarchy 
anatomi-o, anatomy 
anas-o, duck 

ancov-o, anchovy 
And-oj, Andes 
Andaluzi-o, Andalusia 
anekdot-o, anecdote 
aneks-i, to annex 
anemon-o, anemone 
angil-o, eel 

angin-o, quinsy, angina 
angl-a, English 
angl-o, Englishman 
anglism-o, anglicism 
angul-o, angle, corner 
anĝel-o, angel 
anĝelus-o, angelus 
anilin-o, aniline 
anim-o, soul 
aniz-o, anise 
ankaŭ, also 
ankoraŭ, yet, still 
ankr-o, anchor 
anomali-o, anomaly 
anonc-i, announce 
anonim-a, anonymous 
ans-o, catch, clinch, latch 
anser-o, goose 
anstataŭ, instead of 
ant, sign of present act- 
ive participle: amanta 
antagonism-o, antag- 
antagonist-o, antagon- 
antarkt-a, antarctic 
antaŭ, before 
anten-o, antenna 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 

anticip-i, to anticipate 
antikrist-o, Antichrist 
antikv-a, antique 
antilop-o, antelope 
Antil-oj, the Antilles 
antimon-o, antimony 
antipati-o, antipathy 
antipod-oj, antipodes 
antiseps-a, antiseptic 
antitez-o, antithesis 
antologi-o, anthology 
antracit-o, anthracite 
antraks-o, anthrax 
antropologi-o, anthro- 
Anunciaci-o, Annunci- 
anus-o, anus 
aort-o, aorta 
apanaĝ-o, appanage 
aparat-o, apparatus 
apart-a, special, sepa- 
apartament-o, suite, 

aparten-i, to belong to 
apati-o, apathy 
apelaci-o, apellation 
apenaŭ, hardly, scarcely 
Apenin-oj, Appenines 
aper-i, to appear 
apetit-o, appetite 
aplaud-i, to applaud 
aplomb-o, aplomb 
apog-i, to lean upon 
apoge-o, apogee 

apokalips-o, apocalypse 
apokrif-a, apocryphal 
apolog-o, apologue 
apologi-o, apology 
apopleksi-o, apoplexy 
apostat-a, apostate 
apostaz-i, to apostatize 
apostol-o, apostle 
apostrof-o, apostrophe ' 
apotek-o, a chemist's 

apoteoz-o, apotheosis 
apozici-o, apposition 
apr-o, wild boar 
April-o, April 
aprob-i, to approve 
apsid-o, apsis 
apud, near 
ar, indicates a collection 

of things : arbo, tree\ 

arbaro, forest 
arab-o, an Arab 
arabesk-o, arabesque 
arak-o, arrack 
arane-o, spider 
aranĝ-i, to arrange 
arb-o, tree 
arbitr-a, arbitrary 
arbitraci-o, arbitration 
arĉo, violin bow 
ard-o, ardor 
arde-o, heron 
ardez-o, slate 
arometr-o, areometer 
are-o, area 
aren-o, arena 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

areopag-o, areopagus 

arest-i, to arrest 

argil-o, clay 

argon-o, argon 

argument-o, argument 

Argus-o, Argus 

arĝent-o, silver 

arĥaik-a, archaic 

arhaism-o, archaism 

arheologi-o, archeology 

arhipelag-o, archipel- 

arhitektur-o, architec- 

arĥitrav-o, architrave 

arhiv-o, archives 

ari-o, 2Ax\music) 

aristokrat-o, aristocrat 

aritmetik-o, arithmetic 

ark-o, arc, bow 

arkad-o, arcade 

arke-o, ark {Noah's) 

arkt-a, arctic 

arleken-o, harlequin 

arm-i, to arm 

arme-o, army 

armen-o, Armenian 

arnik-o, arnica 

arog-i (al si), to arro- 
gate to oneself 

arogant-a, arrogant 

arom-o, aroma 

arorut-o, arrowroot 

arpeĝ-o, arpeggio 

arsenik-o, arsenic 

art-o, art 

artemezi-o, wormwood 
arteri-o, artery 
artez-a, artesian 
artifik-o, artifice 
artik-o, joint 
artikol-o, article {gram. ) 
artileri-o, artillery 
artist-o, artist 
artiŝok-o, artichoke 
artrit-o, arthritis 
as, present tense ending 

of verbs 
as-o, ace, of cards 
asafetid-o, asafetida 
asbest-o, asbestos 
asekur-i, to insure 
asert-i, to assert 
asesor-o, an assistant 

asfiksi-o, asphyxia 
asign-i, to assign 
asimil-i, to assimilate 
asist-i, to assist 
askarid-o, spoolworm 
asket-o, ascetic 
asketism-o, asceticism 
asoci-o, association, 

asonanc-o, assonance 
asparag-o, asparagus 
aspekt-o, aspect 
aspid-o, asp, aspic 
aspir-i, to aspire 
asteroid-oj, asteroids 
astr-oj, stars, in general 
astrologi-o, astrology 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

astronomi-o, astron- 

at-, sign of the present 
passive participle : 
amate, being loved 

atak-i, to attack 

atavism-o, atavism 

ateism-o, atheism 

ateist-o, atheist 

atenc-i, to attempt 

atend-i, to wait 

atent-a, attentive 

atest-i, to attest 

ating-i, reach, attain 

Atlantik-a, Atlantic 

atlas-o, satin 

atlet-o, athlete 

atmosfer-o, atmosphere 

atom-o, atom 

atribu-i, to attribute 

atribut-o, attribute 

atripl-o, mountain spin- 

atrofi-o, atrophy 

atut-o, trump, at cards 

aŭ, or, either 

aŭd-i, to hear 

aŭditori-o, audience 

aŭgur-o, augury 

August-o, August 

aŭkci-o, auction 
aureol-o, aureole 
aurikl-o, auricle 
Auror-o, Aurora 
aŭskult-i, to listen 
auspic-oj, auspices 
austr-o, an Austrian 
Australi-o, Australia 
aŭtentik-a, authentic 
autobiografi-o, auto- 
autograf-o, autograph 
aŭtokrat-o, autocrat 
autokrati-o, autocracy 
automat-o, automaton 
automobil-o, automo- 
autor-o, author 
autoritat-o, authority 
aŭtun-o, autumn 
av-o, grandfather 
avar-a, avaricious 
avel-o, hazelnut 
aven-o, oats 
aventur-o, adventure 
avid-a, avid, eager 
aviz-i, to notify 
azen-o, ass, donkey 
Azi-o, Asia 
azot-o, azote 

babil-i, to chatter 
babord-o, larboard 
bacil-o, bacillus 
bagatel-o, trifle 

bajonet-o, bayonet 
bak-i, to bake 
bakteri-o, bacterium 
bal-o, ball, dance 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

bala-i, to sweep 
balad-o, ballad 
balanc-i, to balance 
balast-o, ballast 
balbut-i, to stammer 
baldaken-o,, canopy 
baldaŭ, soon 
balen-o, whale 
balet-o, ballet 
balkon-o, balcony 
balon-o, balloon 
balot-i, to vote by ballot 
Balt-a, Baltic 
balustrad-o, balustrade 
balzam-o, balsam 
balzamen-o, balsamine 
bambu-o, bamboo 
ban-i, to bathe 
banan-o, banana 
band-o, band, gang 
bandaĝ-o, bandage 
banderol-o, a strip of 

bandit-o, bandit 
bank-o, bank(financial) 
bankier-o, banker 
bankrot-i, to fail in 

bant-o, bow of ribbon 
bapt-i, baptize 
bar-i, to obstruct 
barak-o, barracks 
barakt-i, to struggle 
barb-o, beard 
barbar-o, barbarian 
barbarism-o, barbarism 

barbir-o, barber 
barĉo, beet-root soup 
barel-o, barrel, cask 
barier-o, barrier 
barikad-o, barricade 
bariton-o, baritone 
barium-o, barium 
bark-o, bark (boat) 
barometr-o, barometer 
baron-o, baron 
bas-o, base {music) 
basen-o, reservoir 
bask-o, skirt of garment 
bast-o, inner bark of tree 
bastard-o, bastard 
bastion-o, bastion 
baston-o, stick 
baŝlik-o, kind of hood 
bat-i, to beat 
batal-i, to fight 
batalion-o, battalion 
batat-o, sweet potato 
bateri-o, battery 
batist-o, cambric, lawn 
bavar-o, a Bavarian 
baz-o, chemical base 
bazalt-o, basalt 
bazar-o, bazar 
bazilik-o, basilica 
bazilisk-o, basilisk 
bed-o, garden-bed 
bedaŭr-i, to regret 
beduen-o, Bedouin 
bek-o, beak 
bel-a, fine, beautiful 
beladon-o, belladonna 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


beletristik-o, belles- 

belg-o, a Belgian 

ben-i, to bless 

benefic-o, benefice 

benk-o, bench 

benzin-o, benzine 

benzol-o, benzola 

ber-o, berry 

berber-o, a Berber 

beril-o, beryl 

best-o, beast 

bet-o, beet 

betul-o, birch 

bezon-i, to need, want 

bibli-o, Bible 

bibliografi-o, bibliog- 

bibliotek-o, library 

bicikl-o, bicycle 

bien-o, landed estate 

bier-o, beer 

bifstek-o, beefsteak 

bigami-o, bigamy 

bigot-a, bigoted 

bil-o, promissory note ; 
bileto, ticket 

bilanc-o, balance-sheet 

bilard-o, billiards 

bilion-o, billion 

bild-o, picture, poster 

bind-i, to bind (books) 

binokl-o, binocular 

biografi-o, biography 

biologi-o, biology 

bird-o, bird 

biret-o, biretta 

bis, once more, encore 

biskvit-o, biscuit 

bismut-o, bismuth 

bistr-o, bistre 

bisturi-o, lancet 

bitum-o, bitumen 

bivak-o, bivouac 

blank-a, white 

blasfem-i,to blaspheme 

blat-o, weevil 

blazon-o, blazon 

blek-o, cry of animal 

blend-o, blende 

blind-a, blind 

blok-o, block 

blond-a, blonde 

blov-i, to blow 

blu-a, blue 

bluz-o, blouse 

bo, relationship by mar- 
riage : patro, father ; 
bopatro, father-in-law 

boa-o, boa 

boat-o, boat 

boben-o, bobbin, spool 

bohem-o, a Bohemian 

boj-i, to bark 

bojkot-i, to boycott 

boks-i, to box 

bol-i, to boil 

Bohvi-o, Bolivia 

bomb-o, bomb 

bombard-i, to bombard 

bombon-o, bonbon 

bon-a, good 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

bosk-o, grove, park 
bot-o, boot 
botanik-o, botany 
botel-o, bottle 
bov-o, ox 

bracelet-o, bracelet 
braĥiur-o, crab 
brak-o, arm (of body) 
bram-o, bream (fish) 
braman-o, Brahmin 
bran-o, bran 
branĉo, branch 
brand-o, brandy 
brank-o, gills (of fish) 
bras-i, to brace (naut.) 
brasik-o, cabbage 
brav-a, brave 
brazil-o, a Brazilian 
breĉ-o, breach 
bret-o, shelf 
breton-o, a Breton 
brev-o, papal breve 
brevier-o, breviary 
brid-o, bridle 
brigad-o, brigade 
brik-o, brick 
briketo, briquette 
bril-i, to shine 
briliant-o, a brilliant 
brit-a, British 
broc-o, brooch 
brod-i, to embroider 
brog-i, to scald 
brokant-i, to haggle 
brom-o, bromine 
bronk-o, bronchial tube 

bronkit-o, bronchitis 
bronz-o, bronze 
bros-o, brush 
brosur-o, brochure 
brov-o, eyebrow 
bru-o, noise 
brul-i, to burn ; bruligi, 

to cause to burn 
brun-a, brown 
brust-o, breast 
brut-o, brute 
bub-o, ragamuffin 
bubal-o, buffalo 
buĉi, to butcher 
bud-o, booth, small store 
budĝet-o, budget 
buf-o, toad 
bufed-o, buffet 
bufr-o, buffer of car 
buk-o, buckle 
buked-o, bouquet 
bukl-o, ringlet, curl 
buks-o, boxwood 
bul-o, ball of earth 
bulb-o, bulb, onion 
bulgar-o, a Bulgarian 
buljon-o, broth 
bulk-o, roll (bread) 
bulvard-o, boulevard 
bun-o, bun 
burd-o, bumble-bee 
burĝ-o, civilian, burgess 
burĝon-o, bud 
burlesk-a, burlesque 
burnoos-o, burnoose 
busprit-o, bowsprit 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


bust-o, bust 
buŝ-o, mouth 
buŜel-o, bushel 
buter-o, butter 

butik-o, store 
buton-o, button 
butor-o, bittern 
buz-o, buzzard 

car-o, czar 
ced-i, cede, yield 
cedr-o, cedar 
cejan-o, cornflower 
cel-i, to aim 
cek-o, Czech 
celeri-o, celery 
celuloid-o, celluloid 
cembr-o, kind of pine 
cement-o, cement 
cend-o, cent 
cent, hundred 
centav-o, centavo 
eentigram-o, centigram 
centilitr-o, centilitre 
centim-o, centime 
centimetr-o, centimeter 
centr-o, center 
centraliz-i, centralize 
cenzur-i, to censure 
cerb-o, brain 
cercedul-o, teal 
ceremoni-o, ceremony 
ceri-o, cerium 
cert-a, certain, sure 
cerv-o, deer 
ceter-a, the rest ; kaj 
ceteraj, and so forth 

cezi-o, caesium 
ci, thou ; cin, thee 
cianacid-o,prussic acid 
cibet-o, civet 
cidoni-O, quince 
cidr-o, cider 
cifer-o, cipher, figure 
cigan-o, gipsy 
cigar-o, cigar 
cigared-o, cigarette 
cign-o, swan 
cikad-o, cicada 
cikatr-o, scar 
cikl-o, cycle 
ciklon-o, cyclone 
ciklop-o, cyclop 
cikoni-o, stork 
cikori-o, succory 
cikumo, brown owl 
cikut-o, hemlock 
cilindr-o, cylinder 
cim-o, bug 
cimbal-o, cymbal 
cinabr-o, cinnibar 
cinam-o, cinnamon 
cindr-o, ashes 
cinik-a, cynical 
cipres-o, cypress 


Esperanto- English Vocabulary 

cir-o, shoe blacking 
cirk-o, circus 
cirkel-o, compass 
cirkl-o, circle 
cirkonstanc-o, circum- 
cirkul-i, to circulate 
cirkuler-o, a circular 
cirkumfleks-o, circum- 

cistern-o, cistern 
cit-i, to cite, quote 
citadel-o, citadel 
citr-o, zither 
citron-o, lemon 
civil-a, civil( not milit- 
ary, etc.) 
civiliz-i, to civilize 
col-o, inch 

ĉabrak-o, caparison 

ĉagren-o, chagrin 

cam-o, chamois 

cambelan-o, chamber- 

ĉambro, room 

ĉampan-o, champagne 

ĉan-o, cock (of gun) 

cap-o, furred cap 

capel-o, hat 

ĉapitr-o, chapter 

car, because, for, since 

car-o, chariot 

carlatan-o, charlatan 

ĉarm-a, charming 

carnir-o, hinge 

ĉarpent-i, to do carpen- 
ter work 

ĉarpi-o, lint 

cas-i, to hunt 

casta, chaste 

ĉe, at 

ĉef-, head or principal: 

ĉefurbo, metropolis. 
ĉek-o, check (on bank) 
cel-o, cell (of matter; 

also of insects' comb) 
ĉemizo, shirt 
ĉen-o, chain 
ceriz-o, cherry 
ĉerk-o, coffin 
cerp-i, to draw water 

from well 
ĉesi, to cease 
ĉeval-o, horse 
ĉi, the nearest : tio, 

that ; tio ĉi, this. 
ĉia, all, all such 
ĉial, for every reason 
ĉiam, always 
ĉie, everywhere 
ĉiel, in every way 
ciel-o, heaven, the sky 
ĉies, everybody's 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


ĉif-i, to crumple 
ĉifon-o, rag 
ĉikan-i, chicane, cavil 
ĉio, all, everything 
ĉiom, all, all of it 
ĉirkaŭ, around 
ĉiu, each, every one 
Ĉirp-i, to chirp 

ĉiz-i, to chisel 

ĉj, endearing diminutive 
for masculine names : 
Petro, Peter ; Peĉjo, 

ĉil-o, a Chilian 

ĉokolad-o, chocolate 

ĉu, whether 

da, of ; used instead of 
de after words denot- 
ing quantity, weight, 

daktil-o, date (fruit) 

dali-o, dahlia 

dalmat-a, Dalmatian 

dam-oj, draughts (game 

damask-o, damask 

dan-o, a Dane 

danc-i, to dance 

dand-o, a dandy 

danĝer-o, danger 

dank-i, to thank 

Dardanel-oj, Dardan- 

dat-o, date (time); dat- 
umi, to date 

dativ-o, dative 

datur-o, datura 

daŭri, to continue 

de, of, by, since, from 

debet-o, a "charge," 
debit (indicates debt) 

debit-o, selling transac- 
tion, ready sale 
dec-i, to be proper, de- 
Decembr-o, December 
decid-i, to decide 
decilitr-o, decilitre 
decimal-a, decimal 
decimetr-o, decimeter 
deĉifr-i, to decipher 
dediĉi, to dedicate 
dedukt-i, to deduce 
defend-i, to defend 
deficit-o, deficit 
definitiv-a, definitive 
degel-i, to thaw 
degener-i, degenerate 
degrad-i, to degrade 
deĵor-i, to be on duty 
dek, ten 

dekadenc-o, decadence 
dekagram-o, dekagram 
dekametr-o, dekame- 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

dekan-o. dean 
deklam-i, to declaim 
deklar-i, to declare 
deklaraci-o, declaration 
deklinaci-o, declension 
dekliv-o, declivity 
dekoraci-o, decoration 
dekret-i, to decree 
dekstr-a, right ; oppo- 
site of left 
deleg-i, to delegate 
delegaci-o, delegation 
delfen-o, dolphin 
delikat-a, delicate 
delir-o, delirium 
delt-o, delta 
demagog-o, demagogue 
demand-i, to ask 
demokrat-o, democrat 
demokrati-o, democra- 
demon-o, demon 
denar-o, denarius 
dens-a, dense 
dent-o, tooth 
denunc-i, to denounce 
departement-o, depart- 
ment of government 
depeŝ-o, dispatch 
depon-i, to deposit 
deput-i, to depute 
deriv-i, to derive 
des pli, the more 
desegn-i, to design 
desert-o, dessert 
desinfekt-i, disinfect 

despot-o, despot 
despotism-o, despotism 
destin-i, to destine 
detal-o, detail 
detektiv-o, detective 
determin-i, determine 
detru-i, to destroy 
dev-i, ought, must 
devi-i, to deviate 
deven-o, origin 
deviz-o, emblem, device 
dezert-o, desert 
dezir-i, to desire 
Di-o, God 
diabet-o, diabetes 
diabl-o, devil 
diadem-o, diadem 
diafan-a, diaphanous 
diafragm-o, diaphragm 
diagnostik-o, diagnosis 
diagnoz-i, to diagnose 
diagonal-a, diagonal 
diakon-o, deacon 
dialekt-o, dialect 
dialog-o, dialogue 
diamant-o, diamond 
diametr-o, diameter 
diant-o, a pink, 
diapazon-o, diapason 
diboĉ-o, debauch 
didaktik-a, didactic 
didelf-o, kangaroo 
diet-o, diet 
difekt-i, to damage 
diferenc-i, to differ 
difin-i, to define 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


difteri-o, diphtheria 
diftong-o, diphthong 
dig-o, dike, dam 
digest-i, to digest 
diism-o, deism 
dik-a, thick; also "fat" 
dikt-i, to dictate 
diktator-o, dictator 
dilem-o, dilemma 
dilet-i, to delight in 
diligent-a, diligent 
dimanĉ-o, Sunday 
dimensi-o, dimension 
diminutiv-o, diminutive 
dinam-o, dynamo 
dinamik-o, dynamics 
dinamit-o, dynamite 
dinasti-o, dynasty 
diplom-o, diploma 
diplomat-o, diplomat 
diplomati-o, diplomacy 
dir-i, to say 
direkci-o, management, 

board of directors 
direkt-i, to direct 
direktor-o, director 
direktori-o, directory 
dis, indicates separation 

or scattering : Ŝiri, 

to tear ; disŝiri, to 

tear to pieces. 
disciplin-o, discipline 
disenteri-o, dysentery 
disertaci-o, dissertation 
disk-o, disc 
diskont-o, discount 

diskret-a, discreet 
diskut-i, to discuss 
dispepsi-o, dyspepsia 
dispon-i, to dispose 
disput-i, to dispute 
distanc-o, distance 
distil-i, to distil 
disting-i, to distinguish 
distr-i, to distract 
distribu-i, to distribute 
distrikt-o, district 
divan-o, divan 
diven-i, to guess 
divers-a, various 
diverĝ-i, to diverge 
divid-i, to divide 
dividend-o, dividend 
divizi-o, division (army 
do, indeed 

docent-o, docent, tutor 
dog-o, large dog, mastiff 
dogm-o, dogma 
doĝ-o, doge 
doktor-o, doctor 
doktrin-o, doctrine 
dokument-o, document 
dolar-o, dollar 
dolĉa, sweet 
dolor-o, pain 
dom-o, house 
domaĝ-o, pity 
domen-o, domino 
don-i, to give 
donac-i, to make a gift 
dorlot-i, coddle, nurse 
dorm-i, to sleep 


Esperanto- English Vocabulary 

dorm-i, to sleep 
dorn-o, a thorn 
dors-o, back 
dct-i, to give a dower 
doz-o, dose 
dragon-o, dragoon 
drak-o, dragon 
drakm-o, drachma 
drakon-a, draconian 
dram-o, drama 
drap-o, cloth 
drapir-i, to drape 
drast-a, drastic 
dras-i, to thresh 
drelik-o, twilled cotton 

goods, drilling 
dren-i, to drain 
dres-i, to train 

driad-o, dryad 
drink-i, to tipple 
drog-o, drug 
dromedar-o, dromedary 
dron-i, to drown ; dro- 

nigi, cause to drown 
druid-o, druid 
du, two 

dub-i, to doubt 
duel-i, fight a duel 
duet-o, duet 
duk-o, duke 
dukat-o, ducat 
dum, during, while 
dung-i, to hire 
duplikat-o, duplicate 
dur-o, a Spanish coin 
duŝ-o, douche 


e., abbreviation for ek- 
zemple ; e. g. 

e, sign of derived ad- 
verb : bela, beautiful-, 
bele, beautifully 

eben-a, even 

ebl', denotes possibility: 
audi, to hear ; aŭd- 
ebla, audible 

ebon-o, ebony 

ebri-a, inebriate, drunk 

ebur-o, ivory 

ec, abstract quality : 
bona, good\ boneco, 

eĉ, even ; eĉ se, even if 

Eden-o, Eden 

edif-i, to edify 

edikt-o, edict 

eduk-i, to educate 

edz-o, a husband 

efekt-o, effect 

efektiv-a, real, actual 

efemer-a, ephemeral 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


efemer-a, ephemeral 

efik-i, to effect 

eg', increased degree or 
size: vento, wind-, 
ventego, tempest 

egal-a, equal 

Egid-o, Mgis 

egipt-o, an Egyptian 

eglefin-o, haddock 

eglog-o, eclogue 

egoism-o, egotism 

egoist-o, egotist 

eĥ-o, echo 

ej', place devoted to : 
lern-i, to learn ; ler- 
nejo, a school 

ek\ prefix indicating an 
action of short dura- 
tion or sudden begin- 
ning : brili, to shine ; 
ekbrili, to flash 

ekip-i, to equip 

eklektik-a, eclectic 

eklezi-o, church (the 

eklips-o, eclipse 

ekliptik-o, ecliptic 

ekonom-o, superintend- 

eks', of the past, ex : 
eksprezidanto, ex- 

ekscelenc-o, excellency 

ekscentr-a, eccentric 

eksces-o, excess 

ekscit-i, to excite 
eksklusiv-a, exclusive 
ekskomunik-i, to ex- 
ekskrement-o, excre- 
ekskurs-o, excursion 
ekspansi-o, expansion 
eksped-i, to expedite 
eksperiment-o, exper- 
ekspertiz-o, investiga- 
tion by experts 
eksplod-i, to explode 
ekspluat-i, to exploit, 

to work out 
eksport-i, to export 
ekspozici-o, exhibition, 

ekspres-a, express, pos- 
ekstaz-o, ecstasy 
ekstemporal-o, extem- 
ekster, outside 
eksterm-i, exterminate 
ekstr-a, extra 
ekstrakt-o, extract 
ekstrem-a, extreme 
ekvaci-o, equation 
ekvator-o, equator 
ekvilibr-o, equilibrium 
ekvilibrism-o, equili- 

ekvivalent-o, equiva- 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

ekvivok-a, equivocal 
ekzakt-a, mathematic- 
ally exact 
ekzamen-i, to examine 
eksegez-o, exegesis 
ekzekut-i, to put to 

death, execute 
ekzem-o, eczema 
ekzempl-o, example 
ekzempler-o, copy (of 

a book, etc.) 
ekzerc-i, to exercise 
ekzil-i, to exile 
el, out of, from, from 

elast-a, elastic 
elefant-o, elephant 
elegant-a, elegant 
elegi-o, elegy 
elekt-i, to choose, elect 
elektr-o, electricity 
elektroliz-o, electrolysis 
elektromotor-o, elec- 
tric motor 
element-o, element 
elevator-o, elevator 
elf-o, elf 
eleksir-o, elixir 
elips-o, ellipse 
elimini-i, to eliminate 

elizi-i, to elide 
elokvent-a, eloquent 
em', inclination: labori, 
to work ; laborema, 

emajl-o, enamel 
emancipi-i, emancipate 
embaras-o, encum- 
emblem-o, emblem 
embrazur-o, embrasure 
embri-o, embryo 
embriologi-o, embryol- 
embusk-o, ambush 
emerit-o, emeritus 
emfaz-o, emphasis 
emigraci-o, emigration 
eminenc-o, eminence 

eminent-a, eminent 
emoci-o, emotion 
empiri-a, empirical 
empirism-o, empirism 
en, in, into 

enciklopedi-o, encyclo- 
endivi-o, endive 
energi-o, energy 
enigm-o, enigma 
enket-o, a poll of mem- 
bers; inquest, inquiry 
entomologi-o, entomol- 
entrepren-i, undertake 
entuziasm-o, enthusi- 
enu-i, to be tired, dull 
envi-i, to envy 
eparhi-o, diocese 
epidemi-o, epidemic 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


epiderm-o, epidermis 
Epifani-o, Epiphany 
epigraf-o, epigraph 
epigram-o, epigram 
epikurism-o, epicurism 
epilepsi-o, epilepsy 
epilog-o, epilogue 
episkop-o, bishop 
epistol-o, epistle 
epitaf-o, epitaph 
epitet-o, epithet 
epitom-o, epitome 
epizod-o, episode 
epizooti-o, murrain 
epok-o, epoch 
epolet-o, epaulet 
epope-o, epopee 
er', unit, one of a col- 
lection : sabl-o, sand) 
sablero, grain of sand 
erar-i, to err 
erik-o, heather 
erinac-o, hedgehog 
erizipel-o, erysipelas 
ermen-o, ermine 
ermit-o, hermit 
erotik-a, erotic 
erp-i, to harrow 
erupci-o, eruption 
escept-i, to except 
esenc-o, essence 
eskadr-o, squadron 
eskim-o, Esquimo 
eskort-o, escort 
esoter-a, esoteric 
esper-i, to hope 

esplor-i, to explore 
esprim-i, to express 
est-i, to be 
establ-i, to establish 
estetik-a, esthetic 
estim-i, to esteem 
esting-i, to extinguish 
estr-o, leader, chief 
estrad-o, rostrum 
eŝafod-o, executioner's 

et', diminution of size 

or degree : monto, 

mountain ; monteto, 

etaĝ-o, story of building 
etat-o, social rank 
etend-i, to extend 
eter-o, ether 
etern-a, eternal 
etik-o, ethics 
etiket-o, etiquette 
etimologi-o, etymology 
etiop-o, an Ethiopian 
etnologi-o, ethnology 
eŭfemism-o euphemism 
eŭnuk-o, eunuch 
Eŭrop-o, Europe 
evangeli-o, gospel 
eventual-a, eventual, 

evident-a, evident 
evit-i, to avoid 
evoluci-o, evolution 
esofag-o, esophagus 
ezok-o, pike (fish) 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

fab-o, bean 

fabel-o, story (fiction) 

fabl-o, fable 

fabrik-o, factory 

facil-a, easy 

faden-o, thread 

faeton-o, phaeton 

fag-o, beech 

fajenc-o, earthenware 

fajf-i, to whistle 

fajl-i, to file 

fajr-o, fire 

fak-o, section, division 

fakir-o, fakir 

faksimil-o, fac simile 

fakt-o, fact 

faktor-o, printer's fore- 

faktori-o, business de- 
pot, agency 

faktur-o, invoice 

fakultat-o, faculty (of 
college, etc.) 

fal-i, to fall 

falang-o, phalanx 

falbal-o, furbelow 

falĉ-i, to mow 

fald-i, to fold 

falk-o, falcon 

fals-i, to falsify, adul- 

falt-o, a wrinkle 

fam-o, rumor 
famili-o, family 
familiar-a, familiar 
fanatik-a, fanatical 
fand-i, to melt (metals) 
fanfar-o, fanfare 
fanfaron-i, to boast 
fantazi-o, fancy 
fantom-o, phantom 
far-i, to make, do 
fara-o, Pharaoh 
faring-o, pharynx 
farize-o, pharisee 
farm-i, to farm 
farmaci-o, pharmacy 
fart-i, to fare (as to 

health or safety) 
farun-o, flour 
fasad-o, facade 
fask-o, bundle 
fars-o, farce 
fason-o, shape cut of a 

fast-o, fast, abstinence 
fatal-a, fatal 
fatalism-o, fatalism 
fauk-o, jaw, opening 
fav-o, ringworm 
favor-a, favorable 
faz-o, phase (of the 

moon, etc.) 
fazan-o, pheasant 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


fazeol-o, haricot bean 

febr-o, fever 

Februar-o, February 

feĉ-o, dregs 

feder-i, to federate 

federaci-o, federation 

federalism-o, federal- 

fe-o, fay; feino, fairy 

fel-o, hide, pelt 

felic-a, happy 

felieton-o, feuilleton 

felp-o, velveteen 

felt-o, felt 

feminism-o, feminism 

feminist-o, suffragist, 

femur-o, thigh 

fend-i, to split 

fenestr-o, window 

fenikopter-o, flamingo 

feniks-o, phoenix 

fenkol-o, fennel 


fer-o, iron 

ferdek-o, deck of ship 

ferm-i, to close 

ferment-i, to ferment 

fervor-o, fervor 

fest-i, to celebrate, to 

festen-o, banquet 

feston-o, festoon 

fetic-o, fetish 

feŭd-a, feudal 

fez~o, fez (cap) 

fi! fie! 

fiakr-o, fiacre, cab 

fianĉ-o, a betrothed man 

fiask-o, fiasco 

fibr-o, fiber 

fibrin-o, fibrine 

fid-i, to trust, rely 

fidel-a, faithful 

fier-a, proud, haughty 

fig-o, fig 

figur-i, to represent by 
drawing, etc. 

fiks-i, to fix (not repair) 

fiktiv-a, fictitious 

fil-o, son 

filantrop-o, philanthro- 

filantropi-o, philan- 

filatel-o, philately 

filharmoni-o, philhar- 

fili-o, branch of organi- 
zation, firm, etc. 

filigran-o, filigree 

filik-o, fern 

filistr-o, philistine, vul- 

filologi-O, philology 

filozof-o, philosopher 

filozofi-o, philosophy 

filtr-i, to filter 

fin-i, to finish 

final-o, finale 

financ-o, finance 

fingr-o, finger 


Esperanto- English Vocabulary 

Finland-o, Finlando 

firm-o, a firm 

fisk-o, public treasury 

fistul-o, fistula 

fiŝ-o, a fish 

fizik-o, physics 

fiziologi-o, physiology 

fizionomi-o, physiog- 

fjord-o, fjord 

flag-o, banner, signal 

flagr-i, to flicker, flare 

flam-o, flame 

flan-o, custard 

flanel-o, flannel 

flank-o, side 

flar-i, to smell 

flat-i, to flatter 

flav-a, yellow 

fleg-i, to nurse 

flegm-o, phlegm 

fleksi-o, inflection 

flik-i, to patch, mend 

flirt-i, to flirt 

flok-o, flake 

flor-i, to flower, bloom 

floren-o, florin 

flos-o, raft 

flu-i, to flow 

flug-i, to fly 

fluid-a, liquid 

flut-o, flute 

foir-o, a fair 

foj-o, "time": unufojo, 
one time 

fojn-o, hay 
fok-o, seal 
foken-o, porpoise 
fokus-o, focus 
foli-o, leaf 
foment-i, foment 
fond-i, to found 
fonetik-a, phonetic 
fonograf-o, phonograph 
font-o, spring of water 
fontan-o, fountain 
for, away from 
forges-i, to forget 
forĝ-i, to forge (metals) 
fork-o, fork 
form-o, form, shape 
formaci-o, formation 
formal-a, formal 
format-o,size and shape 

of a book 
formik-o, ant 
formul-o, formula 
forn-o, stove, oven 
fort-a, strong 
fortepian-o, piano 
fortik-a, solid, substan- 
forum-o, forum 
fos-i, to dig 
fosfor-o, phosphorus 
fost-o, stake, post 
fotograf-i, to photo- 
frag-o, strawberry 
fragment-o, fragment 
fraj-o, spawn 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


frak-o, evening dress 

frakas-i, to shatter 
frakci-o, fraction 
fraksen-o, ash (tree) 
framason-o, freemason 
framb-o, raspberry 
franc-o, a Frenchman 
frand-i, to be fond of 

frangol-o, black alder 
franĝ-o, fringe 
frank-o, franc 
frap-i, to knock 
frat-o, brother 
fraŭl-o, unmarried man 
fraz-o, phrase 
fregat-o, frigate 
fremd-a, foreign 
frenez-a, mad, crazy 
fresk-o, fresco 
freŝ-a, fresh 
fring-o, chaffinch 
fringel-o, canary 
fripon-o, rascal, rogue 
fris-o, frieze 
frit-i, to fry 
frivol-a, frivolous 
friz-i, to curl (the hair) 
fromaĝ-o, cheese 

front-o, front of army 
fronton-o, gable 
frost-o, frost 
frot-i, to rub 
fru-e, early 
frugileg-o, rook 
frukt-o, fruit 
frunt-o, forehead 
ftiz-o, consumption 
fug-o, fugue * 
fulard-o, foulard 
fulg-o, soot 
fulm-o, lightning 
fum-i, to smoke 
fund-o, bottom 
fundament-o, founda- 
funebr-o, funeral 
funel-o, funnel 
fung-o, mushroom 
funkci-o, function 
funt-o, pound 
furaĝ-o, forage 
furioz-a, furious 
furor-o, furore 
furunk-o, a boil 
fusten-o, fustian 
fuŝ-i, to bungle, botch 
fut-o, foot (measure) 
fuzilier-o, fusilier 

gabi-o, gabion 
gad-o, codfish 

gaj-a, gay 
gajn-i, to gain 


Esperanto- E?iglish Vocabulary 

gal-o, bile, gall 
galant-o, snowdrop 
galanteri-o, toilet ar- 
galantin-o, galantine 
galen-o, galena 
galer-o, ship's galley 
galeri-o, gallery 
galicism-o, gallicism 
gall-a, Gallic 
galop-i, to gallop 
galos-o, galosh 
galvan-a, galvanic 
galvanism-o, galvanism 
gam-o, gamut 
gamas-o, gaiter 
gangli-o, ganglion 
gangren-o, gangrene 
gant-o, glove 
garanti-i, to guarantee 
garb-o, a sheaf 
gard-i, to guard 
gardeni-o, gardenia 
gargar-i, to gargle 
garn-i, garnish, decorate 
garnitur-o, garniture 
garnizon-o, garrison 
garol-o, jay 
gas-o, gas 
gast-o, guest 
gastronomi-o, gastron- 
gavot-o, gavotte 
gaz-o, gauze 
gazel-o, gazelle 
gazet-o, gazette 

ge', prefix meaning both 
sexes: patro, father ; 
gepatroj, parents. 
gehen-o, gehenna 
gelaten-o, gelatine 
gem-o, gem 
gencian-o, gentian 
genealogi-o, genealogy 
general-o, a general 
generaci-o,a generation 
geni-o, genius, talent 
genitiv-o, genitive 
genot-o, genet 
gent-o, tribe 
genu-o, knee 
geografi-o, geography 
geologi-o, geology 
geometri-o, geometry 
gerani-o, geranium 
german-a, German 
gerundi-o, gerundive 
gest-o, gesture 
gigant-o, a giant 
gild-o, guild 
gimnastik-a, gymnastic 
gimnazi-o, a college 
gine-o, guinea (coin) 
gips-o, gypsum 
girfalk-o, gerfalcon 
girland-o, garland 
gitar-o, guitar 
glace-a, spick and span, 

glaci-o, ice 
glad-i, to iron, smooth 
gladiator-o, gladiator 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


glan-o, acorn 
gland-o, gland 
glas-o, drinking-glass 
glat-a, smooth 
glav-o, sword 
glazur-o, varnish 
glicerin-o, glycerine 
gliciriz-o, licorice 
glikoz-o, glucose 
glim-o, mica 
glit-i, to glide 
glob-o, globe 
glor-i, to glorify 
glu-i, to stick 
glut-i, to swallow 
gobi-o, gudgeon 
golet-o, schooner 
golf-o, gulf, bay 
gondol-o, gondola 
gorĝ-o, throat 
goril-o, gorilla 
got-a, Gothic 
graci-a, graceful 
grad-o, grade, degree 
graf-o, earl, count 
grafit-o, graphite 
grajn-o, a grain, stone, 

pip (of fruit) 
grak-i, to croak 
gram-o, gram 
gramatik-o, grammar 
gran-o, a grain, particle 
granat-o, pomegranate 
grand-a, large, great 
grandioz-a, grandiose, 


granit-o, granite 
gras-a, fat 
grat-i, to scratch 
gratul-i, to congratulate 
grav-a, important 
graved-a, enciente 
gravur-i, to engrave 
grek-o, a Greek 
gren-o, grain, cereal 
grenad-o, grenade 
Grenland-o, Greenland 
gri-o, oatmeal 
grif-o, griffin 
grifel-o, slate-pencil, 

gril-o, cricket 
grimac-o, grimace 
grinc-i, to grate, rasp 
grip-o, influenza 
griz-a, gray 
grog-o, grog 
gros-o, gooseberry 
grot-o, grotto 
grotesk-a, grotesque 
gru-o, crane (bird) 
grum-o, groom 
grumbl-i, to grumble 
grunt-i, to grunt 
grup-o, group 
guan-o, guano 
guberni-o, government 

of a province or state 
gudr-o, tar 
guf-o, a large owl 
gulden-o, gulden 
gum-o, gum 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

gurd-o, hand-organ 
gust-o, taste 
gustum-i, to taste 
gut-i, to drip 
gutaperk-o, gutta per- 

guvern-i, to educate in 

gvardi-o, a guard of 

gvid-i, to guide 

ĝarden-o, garden 
ĝem-i, to groan 
ĝen-i, to hinder 
ĝendarrri-o, gendarme 
ĝeneral-a, general 
ĝentil-a, polite 
ĝerm-o, germ 

Si, it 

ĝib-o, hump 
ĝin-o, gin 

ĝinece-o, gynecium 
ĝir-o, endorsement (of 

note, draft, etc.) 
ĝiraf-o, giraffe 
ĝis, till, until, as far as 
ĝivr-o, hoar-frost 
ĝoj-o, joy 
ĝu-i, to enjoy 
ĝust-a, just, exact 


ha ! ha ! ah ! 

Haban-o, Havana 

hajl-o, hail 

hak-i, to hack 

hal-Ot a covered mar- 

haladz-o, offensive ex- 

halebard-o, halberd 

helen-a, Hellenic 

halt-i, to stop ; haltigi, 
to cause to stop 

halter-o, dumb-bell 
halucinaci-o, hallucin- 
hamak-o, hammock 
hamstr-o, hamster 
har-o, hair 
haradri-o, plover 
hard-i, to harden 
harem-o, harem 
haring-o, herring 
harmoni-o, harmony 
harp-o, harp 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


harpi-o, harpy 
harpun-o, harpoon 
haŭt-o, skin 
hav-i, to have, possess 
haven-o, haven, port 
hazard-o, hazard 
he ! hey ! hello ! 
hebre-o, Hebrew 
heder-o, ivy 
hejm-o, home 
hejt-i, to heat 
hekatomb-o, hecatomb 
heksametr-o, hexame- 
hektar-o, hectare 
hektograf-o, hekto- 

hektogram-o, h e k t o - 

hektolitr-o, hektolitre 
hektometr-o, hekto- 

hel-a, bright, glaring 
helik-o, edible snail 
heliotrop-o, heliotrope 
helium-o, helium 
help-i, to help, assist 
hemorojd-o, piles 
hepat-o, liver 
heraldik-o, heraldry 
herb-o, herb, grass 
herbari-o, herbarium 
hered-i, to inherit 
herez-o, heresy 
hermafrodit-o, herma- 

hermetik-a, air-tight 
herni-o, hernia, rupture 
hero-o, hero 
herold-o, herald 
heterogen-a, heteroge- 
hetman-o, a Cossack 

hiacint-o, hyacinth 
hidr-o, hydra 
hidrarg-o, mercury 
hidraŭlik-o, hydraulics 
hidrofobi-o, hydropho- 
hidrops-o, dropsy 
hien-o, hyena 
hierarhi-o, hierarchy 
hieraŭ, yesterday 
hieroglif-o, hieroglyph 
higien-o, hygiene 
himn-o, hymn 
hind-o, a Hindoo 
hiperbol-o, hyperbole 
hipnot-a, hypnotic 
hipodrom-o, hippo- 
hipokrit-i, to pretend 
hipopotam-o, hippopo- 
hipotek-o, mortgage 
hipotenuz-o, hypothe- 

hipotez-o, hypothesis 
hirt-a, bristly 
hirud-o, leech 
hirund-o, swallow(bird) 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

hiskiam-o, henbane 

hisop-o, hyssop 

hispan-o, a Spaniard 

histeri-o, hysteria 

histori-o, history 

histrik-o, porcupine 

histrion-o, clown 

ho ! oh ! ho 1 

hoboj-o, hautboy, oboe 

hodiaŭ, today 

hok-o, hook 

holand-a, Dutch 

hold-o, hold of ship 

hom-o, human being 

homeopati-o, homeop- 

homogen-a, homogen- 

honest-a, honest 

honor-i, to honor 

honorari-o, honorarium 

hont-i, to be ashamed 
hor-o, hour 
horde-o, barley 
horizont-o, horizon 
horloĝ-o, clock 
horoskop-o, horoscope 
hortensi-o, hortensia 
hospital-o, hospital 
hotel-o, hotel 
ho ve! alas! 
huf-o, hoof 
hulul-o, howlet 
human-a, humane 
humer-o, humerus 
humil-a, humble 
humor-a, humorous 
hund-o, dog 
hungar-o, a Hungarian 
hura! hurrah! 
huz-o, large sturgeon 
huzar-o, hussar 


ĥameleon-o, chameleon 
ĥaos-o, chaos 
ĥemi-o, chemistry 
ĥimer-o, chimera 
ĥin-o, a Chinese person 
hirurg-o, surgeon 
ĥirurgi-o, surgery 

ĥoler-o, cholera 

ĥor-o, choir 

ĥoral-o, chorale 

ĥromotipi-o, chromo- 
type, color-printing 

ĥronologi-o, chronol- 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


i, infinitive verb ending: 

ami, to love 
ia, any kind of 
ial, for any reason 
iam, ever, at any time 
ibis-o, ibis 
id', the young of: kato, 

cat; katido, kitteti 
ide-o, idea 
ideal-a, ideal 
idealism-o, idealism 
ident-a, identical 
idili-o, idyll 
idiom-o, idiom 
idiot-o, idiot 
idol-o, idol 

ie, someplace, anywhere 
iel, somehow, anyhow 
ies, somebody's, any 

ig', to cause to become : 

bela, beautiful; bel- 

igi, beautify. 
ignam-o, yam 
ignor-i, to ignore 
iĝ', to become: ruga, 
^red; ruĝiĝi, to blush 
iĥtiokol-o, isinglass 
il', tool or instrument : 

tondi, clip; tondilo, 

ileks-o, holly 
ili, they 
iiumin-i, to illuminate 

ilustr-i, to illustrate 

iluzi-o, illusion 

imag-i, to imagine 

imit-i, to imitate 

imperi-o, empire 

imperial-o, roof of a 

imperialism-o, imperi- 

impertinent-a, imper- 

implik-i, to implicate 

impon-i, to impose 

import-i, to import 

impost-o, tax 

impotent-a, impotent 

impres-o, impression 

impuls-o, impulse 

imput-i, to impute 

imun-a, immune 

in', suffix of the femin- 
ine : viro, man ; vir- 
ino, woman 

inaŭguraci-o, inaugu- 

incit-i, to incite 

ind', worth : fidi, to 
trust ; fidinda, trust- 

indeks-o, index 

indian-o, Indian 

indien-o, chintz 

indiferent-a, indifferent 

indig-o, indigo 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

indign-i, to be indignant 
indiĝen-o, a native 
indikativ-o, indicative 
individu-o, individual 
induk-o, induction 
indulg-i, to indulge 
industri-o, industry, 

inerci-o, inertia 
infan-o, child 
infanteri-o, infantry 
infekt-i, to infect 
infer-o, hell 
infinitiv-o, infinitive 
influ-i, to influence 
inform-i, to give infor- 
infuz-i, to infuse 
ing\ holdor for a single 
object : plumo, pen ; 
plumingo, penholder. 
ingven-o, groin 
inĝenier-o, engineer 
iniciat-i, to initiate 
iniciativ-o, initiative 
injekt-i, to inject 
ink-o, ink 

inklin-o, inclination 
inklusiv-e, inclusive 
inkognit-o, incognito 
inkub-o, nightmare 
inkvizaci-o, inquisition 
inkvizitor-o, inquisitor 
inokul-i, to inoculate 
insekt-o, insect 
insid-i, to ensnare 

insign-o, insignia 
insist-i, insist 
inspekt-i, to inspect 
inspir-i, to inspire 
instal-i, to install 
instanc-o, instance 
instig-i, to instigate 
instinkt-o, instinct 
instituci-o, institution 
institut-o, institute 
instru-i, to instruct 
instrukci-o, directions, 

instrument-o, musical 

insul-o, island 
insult-i, to insult 
int', the past participle: 
aminte, having loved 
integral-a, integral 
intelekt-o, intellect 
inteligent-a, intelligent 
intenc-i, to intend 
intens-a, intensive 
inter, between, among 
interdikt-o, interdict 
interes-i, to interest 
interjekci-o, interjec- 
intermit-i, to occur at 

intern-a, internal 
interpret-i, to interpret 
interpunkci-o, punctu- 
intervju-o, interview 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


intest-o, intestine 
intim-a, intimate 
intrig-i, to intrigue 
invad-i, to invade 
invalid-o, invalid 
invers-a, inverse 
inversi-o, inversion 
invit-i, to invite 
io, something, anything 
iom, somewhat, some 
ir-i, to go 
iris-o, iris 
Irland-o, Ireland 
ironi-o, irony 
inventar-o, inventory 

is', sign of past tense : 
amis, did love. 

Islam-o, Islam 

Island-o, Iceland 

ist', one occupied with : 
kuraci, to heal; kura- 
cisto, a doctor. 

istm-o, isthmus 

it', past participle pas- 
sive : amite, having 
been loved. 

ital-a, Italian 

iu, anybody, somebody 

izol-i, to isolate 

Izrael-o, Israel 

j, sign of the plural : 
knabo, boy; knaboj, 

ja, indeed, in fact 

jaguar-o, jaguar 

jaĥt-o, yacht 

jak-o, a round jacket 

jam, already, yet 

jamb-o, iambus 

Januar-o, January 

japan-a, Japanese 

jar-o, year 

jard-o, yard (measure) 

jasmen-o, jessamine 

je, is an indefinite prep- 

jen, behold, lo 
jes, yes 
Jesu-o, Jesus 
jod-o, iodine 
ju pli, the more 
jubile-o, jubilee 
jud-o, Jew 

juft-o, Russia leather 
jug-o, yoke 
jugland-o, walnut 
juĝi, to judge 
Juki, to itch 
Juli-O, July 
jun-a, young 
jung-i, to harness 
Juni-o, June 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

jumper-o, jumper 
junk-o, reed, stalk 
junkr-o, Prussian noble 
jup-o, skirt 

jurist-o, jurist 
just-a, just, righteous 
jut-o, jute 
juvel-o, jewel 

ĵak-o, morning-coat 
ĵaket-o, jacket 
ĵaluz-a, jealous 
ĵargon-o, jargon 
ĵaŭd-o, Thursday 
ĵet-i, to throw 

ĵoke-o, jockey 
ĵongl-i, to juggle 
ĵur-i, to swear 
ĵurnal-o, newspaper 
Jus, just, just now 

k. c, kaj ceteraj, and 
the rest 

k. s., kaj similaj, and 

k. sekv., kaj sekvantaj\ 
and following 

k. a., kaj aliaj, and oth- 

k. t. p., kaj tiel plu, and 
so forth 

kab-o, cape of land 

kabal-o, cabal 

kaban-o, cabin, hut 

kabinet-o, cabinet, 

kabl-o, cable 

kabriolet-o, cab 

ka-ĉo, batter, pap 

kadavr-o, cadaver 

kadenc-o, cadence 

kadet-o, cadet 

kadr-o, frame 

kaduk-a, decrepit 

kaf-o, coffee 

kafr-o, kaffir 

kaĝ-o, cage 

kahel-o, paving tile 

kaj, and 

kaj-o, quay, wharf 

kajer-o, copy-book, a 
paper book, single 
number of series 

kajut-o, hut, cabin 

kaka-o, cocoa 

kakatu-o, cockatoo 

kakt-o, cactus 

kal-o, corn, callous 

kalci-o, calcium 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


kaldron-o, cauldron 

kalejdoskop-o, kaleido- 

kalendar-o, calendar 

kalandr-i, to calendar 
between hot rollers; to 
mangle in laundry 

kalendul-o, marigold 

kaleŝ-o, carriage 

kalfatr-i, to calk 

kalibr-o, caliber 

kalif-o, caliph 

kalik-o, cup, chalice 

kalikot-o, calico 

kalk-o, lime 

kalkan-o, heel 

kalkanum-o, heel of 
shoe, etc. 

kalkul-i, to calculate 

kalomel-o, calomel 

kalson-o, pair of draw- 
ers, pants 

kalumni-i, to slander 

kamarad-o, comrade 

kame-o, cameo 

kambi-o, draft, bill of 

kamel-o, camel 

kamen-o, fire-place 

kamer-o, box-room 

kamizol-o, short night- 

kamlot-o, camlet 

kamomil-o, camomile 

kamp-o, field 

kan-o, rush, reed, cane 

kanab-o, hemp 

kanaben-o, linnet 

Kanad-o, Canada 

kanajl-o, scoundrel 

kanal-o, canal 

kanap-o, sofa, couch 

kanari-o, canary 

kanastr-o, canister 

kancelier-o, chancellor 

kand-o, candy 

kandel-o, candle 

kandelabr-o, candela- 

kandidat-o, candidate 

kanibal-o, cannibal 

kankr-o, crawfish 

kanon-o, canon (church 

kanonik-o, a church 
official, canon 

kant-i, to sing 

kantarid-o, cantharides 

kantat-o, cantata 

kantin-o, canteen 

kanton-o, canton 

kantor-o, chanter 

kanvas-o, canvas 

kap-o, head 

kapabl-a, capable 

kapel-o, chapel 

kaper-i, seize as a prize 

kapital-o, capital, in- 
vested money 

kapitan-o, captain 


kapitol-o, capitol 


Esfiei'a?ito- English Vocabulary 

kapitulac-i, capitulate 
kapon-o, capon 
kapor-o, caper-bush 
kaporal-o, corporal 
kapot-o, cape 
kapr-o, goat 
kapreol-o, roebuck 
kapric-o, caprice, whim 
Kaprikorn-o, Capricorn 
kapstan-o, capstan 
kapsul-o, capsule 
kapt-i, to catch 
kapucen-o, capuchin 

kapuc-o, capuche, cowl 
kar-a, dear 
karaben-o, carbine 
karaf-o, decanter 
karakter-o, disposition 
karakteriz-i, to charac- 
karamel-o, caramel 
karas-o, crucian (fish) 
karavan-o, caravan 
karb-o, charcoal; ter- 
karbo, ŝtonkarbo, coal 
karbol-o, carbol 
karbonad-o, carbonate 
karbunkol-o, carbuncle 
karcer-o, prison 
kard-o, thistle 
kardel-o, goldfinch 
kardinal-o, cardinal 
kares-i, to caress 
karier-o, career 
karik-o, sedge, rush 

karikatur-i, caricature 
kariofil-o, clove 
kariol-o, carry-all 
karmin-o, carmine 
karn-o, flesh 
karnival-o, carnival 
karo-o, diamonds (in 

karob-o, carob-bean 
karot-o, carrot 
karp-o, carp 
Karpat-oj, Carpathians 
karpen-o, yoke-elm 
kart-o, card 
kartav-i, to speak thick 
kartel-o, cartel 
kartilag-o, cartilage 
kartoc-o, cartridge 
karton-o, paper board 
karusel-o, carousal 
kas-o, money-drawer 
kasaci-o, cassation 
kaserol-o, saucepan 
kask-o, helmet 
kaskad-o, cascade 
kast-o, caste 
kastel-o, castle 
kastor-o, beaver 
kastr-i, geld 
kas-i, to hide 
kaŝtan-o, chestnut 
kat-o, cat 

katafalk-o, catafalque 
katakomb-o, catacomb 
katalepsi-o, catalepsy 
katalog-o, catalogue 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


katar-o, catarrh 
katarakt-o, cataract (of 

the eye) 
katastrof-o, catastrophe 
kategori-o, category 
katehism-o, catechism 
katen-oj, fetters 
katolik-a, catholic 
katun-o, cotton cloth 
kaŭci-o, bail, security 
kaŭĉuk-o, rubber 
kaŭr-i, to cower, squat 
kaŭteriz-i, to cauterize 
kauz-i, to cause 
kav-o, hole, pit 
kavaleri-o, cavalry 
kavalir-o, cavalier 
kavalkad-o, cavalcade 
kavern-o, cavern, den 
kaviar-o, caviare 
kaz-o, case (grammar) 
kaze-o, curds 
kazein-o, caseine 
kazemat-o, casemate 
kazern-o, barracks 
kazin-o, casino 
ke, that (conjunction) 
kegl-o, skittle 
kel-o, cellar 
kelk-e, some, a few 
kelner-o, waiter 
ken-o, resinous wood 
kep-o, a peaked cap 
ker-o, hearts (cards) 
kerub-o, cherub 

kest-o, chest, box 
kestrel-o, kestrel 
kia, what, what kind of 
kial, why 
kiam, when 
kie, where 
kiel, how 
kies, whose 
kil-o, keel 

kilogram-o, kilogram 
kilolitr-o, kiloliter 
kilometr-o, kilometer 
kimr-o, a Welshman 
kinematograf-o, cine- 
kinin-o, quinine 
kio, what, what thing 
kiom, how much 
kiras-o, cuirass, armor 
kirl-i, to whirl rapidly 
kirŜ-o, cherry cordial 
kis-i, to kiss 
kitel-o, a workman's 

kiu, who, which 
klaft-o, fathom 
klak-i, to clack, clatter 
klap-o, valve, plug 
klar-a, clear, distinct 
klarnet-o, clarinet 
klas-o, class (category) 
klasifik-i, to classify 
klasik-a, classic 
klav-o, key (of piano, 

typewriter, etc.) 
klemat-o, clematis 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

kler-a, well-informed 
klerik-a, of the clergy 
klient-o, client 
klimat-o, climate 
klin-i, to incline 
kling-o, blade 
klinik-o, clinic 
klister-o, clyster 
kliŝ-i, to stereotype 
kloak-o, sewer, drain 
klopod-i, to strive for 
klor-o, chlorine 
kloroz-o, chlorosis 
kloŝ-a, bell-shaped 
klub-o, club (society) 
kluk-i, to cluck 
kluz-o, sluice 
knab-o, boy 
knar-i, to grate, creak 
kned-i, to knead 
knut-o, knout 
koaks-o, coke 
kobalt-o, cobalt 
koalici-o, coalition 
kobold-o, goblin, imp 
koĉinel-o, cochineal 
kod-o, code 
kodeks-o, codex 
kodicil-o, codicil 
kofr-o, travelling trunk 
koincid-i, to coincide 
kojn-o, wedge 
kok-o, cock, rooster 
kokard-o, cockade 
kokcinel-o, ladybird 
koket-a, coquettish 

kokluŝ-o, whooping- 
kokon-o, cocoon 
kokos-o, cocoanut 
koks-o, hip 
kol-o, neck 
kolbas-o, sausage 
koleg-o, colleague 
kolegi-o, college 
kolekt-i, to collect 
kolektiv-a, collective 
koler-o, anger 
kolerik-a, choleric 
kolibr-o, humming-bird 
kolik-o, colic 
kolimb-o, diver (bird) 
kolizi-o, collision 
kolodi-o, collodium 
kolomb-o, dove, pigeon 
kolon-o, pillar, column 
kolonel-o, colonel 
koloni-o, colony 
kolor-o, color 
koloratur-o, colorature 
kolos-o, colossus 
kolport-i, hawk, peddle 
kolubr-o, adder 
kolum-o, collar 
kolz-o, rape (plant) 
kom-o, comma 
komand-i, to command 

komandor-o, comman- 
der (of an order) 
komb-i, to comb 
kombin-i, to combine 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


komedi-o, comedy 
komenc-i, to commence 
komentari-o, commen- 
komerc-i, to trade 
komet-o, comet 
komfort-o, comfort 
komik-a, comic 
komisari-o, comissary 
komisi-i, to commis- 
sion, to intrust with 
komitat-o, committee 
komiz-o, clerk, employe 
komod-o, commode 
kompakt-a, compact 
kompani-o, company 

(corporation, etc,) 
kompar-i, to compare 
komparativ-a, compar- 
kompas-o, a compass 

kompat-i, to pity 
kompendi-o, compend- 
kompens-i, compensate 
kompetent-a, compet- 
kompil-i, to compile 
komplement-o, com- 
plement {gram.) 
komplet-o, a suit of 

komplez-i, to be kind, 

komplik-i, to complicate 

kompliment-i, to com- 
komplot-o, plot 
kompon-o, a composi- 
tion (musical) 
kompost-i, to set type 
kompren-i, understand 
kompromis-o, compro- 
kompromit-i, to impli- 
cate, compromise 
komun-a, common 
komuni-i, to give sacra- 
komunik-i, communi- 
komunism-o, commun- 
komut-i, to commute 
kon-i, to know, be ac- 
quainted with 
koncentr-a, concentric 
koncern-i, to concern 
koncert-o, concert 
koncesi-o, concession 
konciz-a, concise 
kondamn-i, to condemn 
kondiĉ-o, a condition, 

kondolenc-i, to condole 
kondor-o, condor 
konduk-i, lead, conduct 
konduktor-o, conductor 
kondut-i, to behave 
konfeder-i, to confeder- 


Esperanto- English Vocabulary 

konfekci-o, the clothing 

konferenc-o, conference 
konfes-i, to confess 
konfid-i, to confide 
konfidenci-a, confiden- 
konfirm-i, to confirm 
konfirmaci-o, confirm- 
ation (church) 
konfisk-i, to confiscate 
konfit-i, to preserve 
konflikt-o, conflict 
konform-a, in conform- 
konfuz-i, to confound 
konglomerat-o, con- 
kongregaci-o, congre- 
kongres-o, congress 
konifer-o, conifer 
konjak-o, cognac 
konjekt-i, to conjecture 
konjugaci-i, conjugate 
konjunkci-o, conjunc- 
konk-o, shell 
konkav-a, concave 
konklud-i, to conclude 
konkret-a, concrete 
konkur-i, to compete 
konkurs-o, competition 
konsci-i, be conscious 
konscienc-o, conscience 
konsent-o, consent 

konserv-i, to conserve 
konservativ-a, conser- 
konservatori-o, conser- 
konsider-i, to consider 
konsil-i, to advise 
konsist-i, to consist 
konsistori-o, consistory 
konsol-i, to console 
konsonant-o, consonant 
konspir-i, to conspire 
konstant-a, constant 
konstat-i, to declare 
konstelaci-o, constella- 
konstern-i, to dismay 
konstituci-o, constitu- 
konstru-i, to erect 
konsul-o, consul 
konsult-i, to consult 
konsum-i, to consume 
kont-o, trade account 
kontakt-o, contact 
kontant-o, ready money 
kontent-a, satisfied 
kontinent-o, continent 
kontingent-o, contin- 
kontraband-o, smug- 
kontrabas-o, base viol 
kontrakt-i, to contract 
kontrast-o, contrast 
kontraŭ, against 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


kontrol-i, control 

kontur-o, outline 

kontuz-i, to bruise 

konus-o, cone 

konval-o, lily of the 

konveks-a, convex 

konven-i, to suit 

konvenci-o, convention, 

konverĝ-i, converge 

konversaci-o, conver- 

konvert-i, to convert 

konvink-i, to convince 

konvulsi-o, convulsion 

kopek-o, kopeck 

kopi-i, to copy 

kor-o, heart 

koral-o, coral 

koran-o, Koran 

korb-o, basket 

kord-o, chord 

kordon-o, cordon 

korekt-i, to correct 

korelativ-a, correlative 

korespond-i, to corre- 

koridor-o, corridor 

kork-o, cork 

korn-o, horn 

korne-o, cornea 

kornet-o, cornet 

kornic-o, cornice 

kornik-o, crow 

korp-o, body 

korporaci-o, corpora- 

korpus-o, army corps 

korsaĵ-o, corsage 

korsar-o, corsair 

korset-o, corset 

kort-o, yard, court 

korv-o, raven 

kosmetik-o, cosmetic 

kosm-o, cosmos 

kosmopolit-a, cosmo- 

kost-i, to cost 

kostum-o, costume 

kot-o, mud 

kotiz-i, to pay dues 

kotolet-o, chop, cutlet 

koton-o, cotton 

koturn-o, quail 

kov-i, to brood 

kovert-o, envelope 

kovr-i, to cover 

kozak-o, Cossack 

krab-o, crab, crawfish 

krabr-o, hornet 

krac-i, to spit 

krad-o, grate 

krajon-o, pencil 

krak-i, to crack 

kramp-o, fulcrum 

kran-o, tap 

krani-o, cranium 

kratag-o, hawthorn 

krater-o, crater 

kravat-o, cravat 

kre-i, to create 

4 2 

Espera?ito-English Vocabulary 

kred-i, to believe 

kredit-o, credit 

kreditor-o, creditor 

krejcer-o, kreutzer 

krem-o, cream 

kreol-o, Creole 

krep-o, crape 

krepusk-o, twilight 

kres-o, cress 

kresk-i, to grow 

kresp-o, pancake 

krest-o, crest, comb (of 
birds or fowl) 

krestomati-o, chresto- 

kret-o, chalk 

krev-i, to burst 

kri-i, to cry 

kribr-i, to sift 

krim-o, crime 

kriminal-a, criminal 

kring-o, a ring-shaped 
cracker or biscuit 

kripl-a, crippled 

kript-o, crypt 

Krist-o, Christ 

kristal-o, crystal 

kriteri-o, criterion 

kritik-i, to criticise 

kriz-o, crisis 

krizalid-o, chrysalis 

krizantem-o, chrysan- 

kroĉ-i, to hook 

krokodil-o, crocodile 

krom, except 

krom-o, chromo 
kron-o, crown 
kronik-o, chronicle 
kronologi-o, chronology 
krop-o, crop (of birds) 
kroz-i, to cruise 
kruc-o, cross 
krucum-i, to crucify 
kruc-o, jug, pitcher 
krud-a, crude, raw 
kruel-a, cruel 
krup-o, croup 
krur-o, leg 
krust-o, crust 
krut-a, steep 
kub-o, cube 
kubut-o, elbow 
kudr-i, to sew 
kuf-o, woman's cap 
kugl-o, bullet 
kuir-i, to cook 
kuk-o, cake 
kukol-o, cuckoo 
kukum-o, cucumber 
kukurb-o, pumpkin 
kul-o, gnat 
kuler-o. spoon 
kulp-a, guilty 
kult-o, cult 
kultur-o, culture 
kun, with 
kunikl-o, rabbit 
kup-o, cupping-glass 
kupe-o, compartment 

in railway car 
kupol-o, dome, cupola 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


kupon-o, coupon 
kur-i, to run 
kurac-i, to treat, cure 
kuraĝ-a, courageous 
kurator-o, curator 
kurb-o, curve 
kuri-o, papal council 
kurier-o, courier 
kurioz-a, uncommon 
kurs-o, course 
kursiv-a, cursive 
kurtaĝ-o, brokerage 
kurten-o, curtain 
kusen-o, cushion 
kuŝ-i, to be lying down 
kutim-o, habit, custom 
kutr-o, cutter (boat) 
kuv-o, tub 
kuz-o, cousin 
kvadrant-o, quadrant 
kvadrat-o, square 
kvadril-o, quadrille 
kvaker-o, Quaker 

kvalifik-i, to qualify 

kvalit-o, quality 

kvankam, although 

kvant-o, quantity 

kvar, four 

kvaranten-o, quaran- 

kvarc-o, quartz 

kvart-o, fourth (music) 

kvartal-o, quarter or 
section of a town 

kvartet-o, quartet 

kvazaŭ, as if 

kver-i, to coo 

kverk-o, oak 

kvestor-o, questor 

kviet-a, calm 

kvin, five 

kvintesenc-o, quintes- 

kvit-a, quit 

kvitanc-i, to receipt for 

kvocient-o, quotient 

1\ la, the 
labor-i, to work 
lac-a, tired 
lacert-o, lizard 
laĉ-o, lacing-string 
lad-o, tin 
laf-o, lava 
lag-o, lake 
lagun-o, lagoon 
laik-o, layman 
lak-o, varnish 

lake-o, lackey 
lakon-a, laconic 
laks-o, diarrhoea 
lakt-o, milk 
lam-a, lame 
lam-o, llama 
lamp-o, lamp 
lampir-o, glow-worm 
lan-o, wool 
lanc-o, lance, spear 
land-o, land, country 


Esperanto- English Vocabulary 

lang-o, tongue 
lani-o, shrike 
lantern-o, lantern 
lanug-o, down 
lap-o, bur 
lapis-o, lapis 
lar-o, sea-gull 
lard-o, lard 
larĝ-a, wide 
larik-o, larch 
laring-o, larynx 
larm-o, tear (of eye) 
las-i, to leave 
last-a, last 
lat-o, lath 
latin-a, Latin 
latrin-o, cesspool, closet 
latuk-o, lettuce 
laŭ, according to 
laŭb-o, arbor 
laud-i, to praise 
laŭntenis-o, lawn tennis 
laur-o, laurel 
laŭreat-o, laureate 
laŭt-e, loudly 
lav-i, to wash 
lavang-o, avalanche 
lavend-o, lavender 
lazur-a, azure 
lecion-o, lesson 
led-o, leather 
leg-i, to read 
legat-o, legate 
legend-o, legend 
legi-o, legion 
legitim-i, to legitimize 

legom-o, vegetable 

legumin-o, legume 

leĝ-o, law 

lek-i, to lick 

lekant-o, marguerite 

lekci-o, lecture 

leksikon-o, lexicon 

lektor-o, lecturer 

lent-o, lentil 

lentuĝ-o, freckle 

leon-o, lion 

leontod-o, dandelion 

leopard-o, leopard 

lepor-o, hare 

lepr-q, leprosy 

lern-i, to learn 

lert-a, clever 

lesiv-o, wholesale wash- 
ing of clothes 

letargi-o, lethargy 

leter-o, letter 

leŭtenant-o, lieutenant 

leuk-o, league(measure) 

lev-i, to lift 

li, he 

lian-o, bindweed 

libel-o, dragon-fly 

liber-a, free 

liberal-a, liberal (pol.) 

liberalism-o, liberalism 

libr-o, book 

lice-o, lyceum, French 

lien-o, spleen 

lig-i, to tie, to bind 

lign-o, wood 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


liken-o, lichen 
likvid-i, to liquidate 
likvor-o, liquor 
lili-o, lily 
lim-o, limit 
limak-o, snail 
limf-o, lymph 
limonad-o, lemonade 
lin-o, flax 
linari-o, red linnet 
linĉ-i, to lynch 
lingv-o, language 
lingvistik-o, linguistics 
lini-o, line 
link-o, lynx 
lip-o, lip 
lir-o, lyre 
lirik-o, lyric 
list-o, list 
lit-o, bed 
litani-o, litany 
liter-o, letter (alphabet) 
literatur-o, literature . 
litograf-i, to lithograph 
litov-a, Lithuanian 
litr-o, litre 
liturgi-o, liturgy 
liut-o, lute 
liver-i, to deliver 
livr-o, pound (sterling) 
livre-o, livery 
lod-o, half-ounce 

log-i, to allure 
logik-o, logic 
loĝ-i, to dwell 
loĝi-o, theater box 
lojal-a, loyal 
lojt-o, lote 
lok-o, place 
lokomotiv-o, locomo- 
lol-o, tares 
long-a, long 
lonicer-o, honeysuckle 
lorn-o, field-glass 
lot-i, to draw lots 
loteri-o, lottery 
lu-i, to hire 
lud-i, to play 
luks-o, luxury 
lul-i, to lull to sleep 
lum-i, to shine 
lumb-o, loins 
lumbrik-o, earthworm 
lun-o, moon 
lunatik-o, lunatic 
lund-o, Monday 
lup-o, wolf 
lupop-o, hop (plant) 
lustr-o, luster 
lut-i, to solder 
luteran-o, Lutheran 
lutr-o, otter 




maĉ-i, to chew 
madon-o, madonna 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

magi-o, magic 
magistrat-o, magistrate 
magnat-o, magnate 
magnet-o, magnet 
magnetiz-i, magnetize 
magnoli-o, magnolia 
mahagon-o, mahogany 
Mahomet-o, Mahomet 
maizo, maize, corn 
Maj-o, May 
majest-a, majestic 
majolik-a, majolica 
major-o, army major 
majstr-o, master of an 

art, trade, etc. 
makadam-o, macadam 
makaron-o, macaroon 
makaroni-o, macaroni 
makler-i, to do broker- 
age business 
makrop-o, kangaroo 
maksim-o, maxim 
maksimum-o, maxi- 
makul-o, spot, stain 
makzel-o, jaw 
mal', denotes contrary: 
bona, good\ malbona, 
malaj-o, Malay 
malari-o, malaria 
maleol-o, ankle 
malgraŭ, notwithstand- 
malic-a, malicious 
malt-o, malt 

malvarmum-i, to take 

mamo, breast, udder 
mamut-o, mammoth 
man-o, hand 
mana-o, manna 
mandaren-o, mandarin 
mandat-o, money-order 
mandolin-o, mandolin 
mandragor-o, m a n - 

maneĝ-o, riding-school 
manĝ-i, to eat 
mani-o, mania 
manier-o, manner 
manifest-o, manifesto 
manik-o, sleeve 
manipul-i, manipulate 
mank-i, to be lacking 
manovr-o, maneuver 
mantel-o, a mantle, 

mantil-o, mantilla 
manufaktur-o, manu- 
manum-o, cuff 
manuskript-o, manu- 
mar-o, sea, ocean 
marĈipan-o, marchpane 
marĉ-o, marsh 
marĉand-i, to bargain 
mard-o, Tuesday 
marĝarin-o, oleomar- 
marĝen-o, margin 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


marin-i, to pickle 
marionet-o, marionette 
mark-o, mark 
markez-o, marquee 
markiz-o, marquis 
markot-o, runner of a 

marli-o, catgut 
marmelad-o, marme- 

marmor-o, marble 
marmot-o, marmot 
maroken-o, morocoo 
Mars-o, Mars 
marŝ-i, to march 
marŝal-o, marshal 
Mart-o, March 
martel-o, hammer 
martingal-o, martingale 
martir-o, martyr 
mas-o, mass, agglom- 
masaĝ-o, massage 
masiv-a, massive 
mask-o, mask 
mason-i, to do mason 

mast-o, mast 
mastik-o, mastic 
mastodon-o, mastodon 
mastr-o, master of a 

house ; host 
maŝ-o, mesh 
maŝin-o, machine 
mat-o, mat 
matador-o, matador 

matematik-o, mathe- 
maten-o, morning 
materi-o, matter 
material-o, material 
materialism-o, materi- 
matrac-o, mattress 
matric-o, matrix, die 
matrikul-i, matriculate 
matronin-o, matron 
matur-a, ripe 
maŭr-o, a Moor 
mauzole-o, mausoleum 
mazurk-o, mazurka 
mebl-o, a piece of fur- 
meĉ-o, wick 
medal-o, medal 
medalion-o, medallion 
medi-o, the medium, 
average, commonplace 
medicin-o, medicine 
medit-i, to meditate 
medium-o, medium 
meduz-o, jellyfish 
meĥanik-o, mechanics 
meĥanism-o, mechan- 
mejl-o, mile 
Meksik-o, Mexico 
mel-o, badger 
melankoli-o, melan- 
melas-o, molasses 
meleagr-o, turkey 

4 8 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

melis-o, garden mint 
melk-i, to milk 
melodi-o, melody 
melodram-o, melo- 
melon-o, melon 
mem, self or selves 
membr-o, member 
membran-o, membrane 
memor-i, to remember 
mend-i, order (goods) 
mens-o, spirit, mind, 

distinct from matter 
mensog-i, to tell a lie 
menstruaci-o, men- 
ment-o, mint 
menton-o, chin 
mentor-o, mentor 
menu-o, menu 
menuet-o, minuet 
meridian-o, meridian 
merinos-o, merino 
merit-i, merit, deserve 
meriz-o, wild cherry 
merkred-o, Wednesday 
merl-o, blackbird 
mes-o, mass (church) 
Mesi-o, Messiah 
mestiz-o, a half-breed 

met-i, to put 
metafizik-o, metaphys- 
metafor-o, metaphor 
metal-o, metal 

metamorfoz-o, meta- 
meteor-o, meteor 
meti-o, a trade, handi- 
metod-o, method 
metr-o, meter 
metrik-a, metric 
metropol-o, metropolis 
mev-o, sea-gull 
mez-o, midst, middle 
mezalianc-o, mesalli- 
mezur-i, to measure 
mi, I 

miasm-o, miasma 
miaŭ-i, to mew 
miel-o, honey 
mien-o, mien, air 
migdal-o, almond 
migr-i, to migrate 
mikrob-o, microbe 
mikroskop-o, micro- 
miks-i, to mix 
mil, thousand 
mild-a, gentle, mild 
mili-o, millet 
miliard-o, milliard 
milici-o, militia 
milimetr-o, millimeter 
milion-o, million 
milit-i, to fight 
mimik-o, mimicry 
min-o, mine 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


minaret-o, minaret 
mineral-o, mineral 
mineralogi-o, mineral- 
minac-i, to threaten 
mini-o, red lead 
miniatur-o, miniature 
minimum-o, minimum 
ministr-o, minister 
mimis-o, minus 
minut-o, minute 
miogal-o, musk-rat 
miop-a, nearsighted 
miozot-o, myosotis 
mir-i, to wonder 
mirakl-o, miracle 
mirh-o, myrrh 
miriad-o, myriad 
miriametr-o, miriame- 

mirmekofag-o, ant- 
mirmeleon-o, lion-ant 
mirt-o, myrtle 
mirtel-o, bilberry 
misal-o, missal 
misi-o, mission 
mister-o, mystery 
mistifik-i, to mystify 
mistik-o, a mystic 
mit-o, myth 
mitologi-o, mythology 
mitul-o, mussel 
mizer-o, misery 
mobiliz-i, to mobilize 
mod-o, fashion, mode 

model-o, model 
moder-a, moderate 
modern-a, modern 
modest-a, modest 
modif-i, to modify 
modul-i, modulate 
modulaci-o, modulation 
mok-i, to mock 
mol-a, soft 
molekul-o, molecule 
molusk-o, mollusk 
moment-o, moment 
mon-o, money 
monaĥ-o, monk 
monarĥ-o, monarch 
monat-o, month 
mond-o, world 
moned-o, jackdaw 
monitor-o, monitor 
monogram-o, mono- 
monokl-o, monocle 
monolog-o, monologue 
monomani-o, mono- 
monopol-o, monopoly 
monstr-o, monster 
monoteism-o, mono- 
mont-o, mountain 
montr-i, to show 
monument-o, monu- 
mops-o, pug dog 
mor-oj, morals 
moral-a, moral 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

morbil-o, measles 
morĉel-o, mushroom 
mord-i, to bite 
morfin-o, morphine 
morgaŭ, tomorrow 
mort-i, to die 
morter-o, mortar 
moru-o, species of cod- 
morus-o, mulberry 
mosk-o, musk 
moske-o, mosque 
moskit-o, mosquito 
most-o, unfermented 

moŝt-o, title of respect 
mot-o, motto 
motiv-o, motive 
motor-o, motor 
mov-i, to move 
mozaik-o, mosaic 
mucid-a, damp, mouldy 
muel-i, to grind 

muf-o, muff 
muĝ-i, to roar 
muk-o, mucus 
mul-o, mule 
mult-o, much 
multiplik-i, multiply 
mulmuslin-o, mull 
mumi-o, mummy 
mur-o, wall 
murmur-i, to murmur 
mus-o, mouse 
musk-o, moss 
muskat-o, nutmeg 
musked-o, musket 
muskol-o, muscle 
muslin-o, muslin 
mustard-o, mustard 
mustel-o, martin, sable 
muŝ-o, common fly 
mut-a, mute 
muz-o, muse 
muze-o, museum 
muzik-o, music 


n, ending of the accusa- 
tive or objective case; 
also shows direction 
or motion toward 

naci-o, nation 

nadir-o, nadir 

naft-o, naphtha 

naĝ-i, to swim 

naiv-a, artless 
najbar-o, neighbor 
najl-o, nail 

najtingal-o, nightingale 
nanken-o, nankeen 
nap-o, turnip 
narcis-o, narcissus 
narkot-a, narcotic 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


nasfc-i, to give birth to 
natr-o, soda 
natur-o, nature 
nau, nine 

naŭz-i, to nauseate 
nav-o, nave 
naz-o, nose 
ne, no 
nebul-o, fog 
neces-a, necessary 
neĝ-o, snow 
negliĝ-o, negligee 
negoc-o, business af- 
fair, transaction 
negr-o, negro 
nek, neither 
nekroloĝi-o, necrology 
nektar-o, nectar 
neni-o, nothing 
nenia, none, no such 
nenial, for no cause 
neniam, never 
nenie, nowhere 
neniel, in no way 
nenies, nobody's 
nenio, nothing 
neniom, none 
neniu, nobody 
neologism-o, neologism 
nep-o, grandson 
nepotism-o, nepotism 
nepre, unfailingly 
nest-o, nest, den 
net-o, clean copy 
neuralgi-o, neuralgia 
neŭtr-a, neuter 

neŭtrala, neutral 

nev-o, nephew 

ni, we 

nic-o, niche 

nigr-a, black 

nihilism-o, nihilism 

nikel-o, nickel 

nikotin-o, nicotine 

nimb-o, nimbus, halo 

nimf-o, nymph 

nivel-o, level 

niz-o, sparrow-hawk 

nj' endearing diminutive 
of feminine names : 
patrino, mother; pan- 
jo, mamma, 

nobel-o, nobleman 

nobl-a, noble 

nokt-o, night 

nom-o, name 

nomad-o, nomad 

nombr-o, number 

nominal-a, nominal 

nominativ-o, nomina- 

nord-o, north 

normal-a, regular 

norveg-o, a Norwegian 

nostalgi-o, homesick- 

not-i, to note, to make 

notari-o, notary 

nov-a, new 

novel-o, novel 

Novembr-o, November 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

novic-o, novice 

nu, well 

nuanc-o, hue, tint 

nub-o, cloud 

nud-a, nude 

nuk-o, nape of the neck 

nuks-o, nut 

nul-o, zero 

numer-o, number, No. 
numid-o, guinea-fowl 
numismatik-o, numis- 
nun, now 
nunci-o, nuncio 
nur, only 
nutr-i, to nourish, feed 

o, ending of the noun or 

oaz-o, oasis 

obe-i, to obey 

obelisk-o, obelisk 

objekt-o, object 

obl\ multiple of num- 
erals : du, two ; du- 
obla, double 

oblat-o, wafer 

obligaci-o, bond 

oblikv-a, oblique 

obol-o, a small Greek 
coin, obolus 

observ-i, to observe 

observatori-o, observ- 

obstina, obstinate 

obstrukci-o, obstruction 

ocean-o, ocean 

od-o, ode 

odor-i, to give odor 

ofend-i, to offend 

ofer-i, to sacrifice 
ofic-o, employment 
oficial-a, official 
oficir-o, officer 
oft-e, often 
ok, eight 
okaz-i, to occur 
okcident-o, west 
okr-o, ochre 
oksid-o, oxide 
oksigen-o, oxygen 
oksikok-o, cranberry 
oktav-o, octave 
Oktobr-o, October 
okul-o, eye 
okult-a, occult 
okup-i, to occupy 
okzal-o, sorrel 
ol, than 
ole-o, oil 

oleandr-o, oleander 
oligarhi-o, oligarchy 
oliv-o, olive 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


omar-o, lobster 

ombr-o, shade 

ombrel-o, umbrella 

omnibus-o, omnibus 

on', mark of fractions : 
tri, three\ triono, one- 

ond-o, wave 

oni, "one," "they" 

oniks-o, onyx 

onkl-o, uncle 

ont', future active par- 
ticiple: amonte, about 
to love 

ontologi-o, ontology 

Op', suffix or collective 
numerals : kvar, /our; 
kvarope, by fours 

opal-o, opal 

oper-o, opera 

operaci-o, operation 

opi-o, opium 

opini-i, to opine 

oportun-a, convenient 

opozici-o, opposition 

optik-o, optics 

optimism-o, optimism 

optimist-o, optimist 

or-o, gold 

orakol-o, oracle 

orangutang-o, orang- 

oranĝ-o, orange 

oranĝeri-o, hot-house 

orator-o, orator 

oratori-o, oratory 

ord-o, order 

orden-o, the order of 

ordinar-a, ordinary 
ordon-i, to order, com- 
orel-o, ear 
orf-o, orphan 
organ-o, organ 
organism-o, organism 
organiz-i, to organize 
organik-a, organic 
orgen-o, organ (tnus.) 
orgi-o, orgy 
orient-o, east 
origin-o, origin 
original-o, original 
oriol-o, oriole 
orkestr-o, orchestra 
orkide-o, orchid 
ornam-i, to adorn 
ornat-o, clerical robes 
ornitologi-o, ornithol- 
ort-a, rectangular 
ortodoks-a, orthodox 
ortografi-o, orthogra- 
ortopedi-o, orthopedics 
OS, sign of future tense: 

amos, will love 
osced-i, to yawn, gape 
osifrag-o, osprey 
ost-o, bone 
ostr-o, oyster 
ostracism-o, ostracism 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

of, passive participle, 
future : amote, about 
to be loved 

ov-o, egg 

ovaci-o, ovation 
oval-a, oval 
ozon-o, ozone 

pac-o, peace 
pacienc-o, patience 
padel-i, to paddle 
paf-i, to shoot 
pag-i, to pay 
pagod-o, pagoda 
paĝ-o, page 
paĝi-o, page (boy) 
pajl-o, straw, thatch 
pak-i, to pack 
pal-a, pale 
palac-o, palace 
paladi-o, palladium 
palankin-o, palanquin 
palat-o, palate 
paletr-o, palette 
palis-o, stake 
palisandr-o, rosewood 
palm-o, palm tree 
palp-i, to feel 
palpebr-o, eyelash 
palt-o, greatcoat 
Palestin-o, Palestine 
pamflet-o, pamphlet 
pan-o, bread 
panegir-o, panegyric 
panel-o, panel 
panik-o, panic 

panoram-o, panorama 
pantalon-o, trousers 
panteism-o, pantheism 
panteist-o, pantheist 
panter-o, panther 
pantofl-o, slipper 
pantomim-o, panto- 
pap-o, pope 
papag-o, parrot 
papav-o, poppy 
paper-o, paper 
papili-o, butterfly 
papirus-o, papyrus 
par-o, pair 
parad-i, to parade 
paradiz-o, paradise 
paradoks-o, paradox 
paraf-o,flourish, paraph 
parafin-o, paraffine 
parafraz-o, paraphrase 
paragraf-o, paragraph 
paralel-o, parallel 
paralelogram-o, paral- 
paraliz-i, to paralyze 
parapet-o, parapet 
parazit-o, parasite 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


parcel-o, lot of land 
pardon-i, to forgive 
parenc-o, relative 
parantez-o, parenthesis 
parfum-o, perfume 
parget-o, flooring 
park-o, park 
parker-e, "by heart" 
parlament-o, parlia- 
parodi-o, parody 
paroĥ-o, parish 
paroksism-o, paroxysm 
parol-i, to speak 
part-o, part 
parter-o, theater pit 
parti-o, party 
particip-o, participle 
paru-o, titmouse 
pas-i, to pass 
pasament-o, lace 
paser-o, sparrow 
pasi-o, passion 
pasiv-a, passive 
Pask-o, Easter 
paskvil-o, lampoon 
pasport-o, passport 
past-o, paste 
pasteĉ-o, pie, tart 
pastel-o, lozenge, pas- 
pastinak-o, parsnip 
pastoral-o, pastoral 

play or poem 
pastr-o, priest, pastor 

paŝ-i, to step 
paŝt-i, to pasture 
paŝtel-o, pastel crayon 
pat-o, frying pan 
patent-o, patent 
patologi-o, pathology 
patos-o, pathos 
patr-o, father 
patriark-o, patriarch 
patrici-o, patrician 
patriot-o, patriot 
patrol- o, patrol 
patron-o, patron 
paŭz-i, pause 
pav-o, peacock 
pavian-o, baboon 
pavilon-o, pavilion 
pavim-o, pavement 
pean-o, pean 
pec-o, piece 
peĉ-o, pitch 
pedal-o, pedal 
pedant-o, pedant 
pedel-o, beadle 
pedik-o, louse 
peg-o, woodpecker 
pejzaĝ-o, landscape 
pek-i, to sin 
Pekin-o, Pekin 
pekl-i, to pickle 
pel-i, to chase away 
pelikan-o, pelican 
pelt-o, pelisse, pelt 
pelv-o, basin 
pen-i, to try, endeavor 
penc-o, penny 

5 6 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 

pend-i, to hang 
pendol-o, pendulum 
penetr-i, to penetrate 
penik-o, artist's brush 
pens-i, to think 
pensi-o, pension 
pent-i, to repent 
pentr-i, to paint 
peoni-o, peony 
pep-i, to chirp, twitter 
pepsin-o, pepsin 
per, by, by means of 
percept-i, to perceive 
perd-i, to lose 
perdrik-o, partridge 
pere-i, to perish 
perfekt-a, perfect 
perfid-i, to betray 
pergamen-o, parchment 
periferi-o, periphery 
perimetr-o, perimeter 
period-o, period 
peristil-o, peristyle 
perk-o, perch (fish) 
perl-o, pearl 
perlamot-o, mother-of- 
permes-i, to permit 
peron-o, steps (before 

a house) 
perpendikular-a, per- 
persekut-i, prosecute, 

persik-o, peach 
persist-i, to persist 

person-o, person 

perspektiv-o, perspect- 

Peru-o, Peru 

pes-i, to weigh (trans.*) 

pesimism-o, pessimism 

pesimist-o, pessimist 

peset-o, peseta 

pest-o, pest, plague 

pet-i, to ask, request 

petol-i, to be petulant, 

petrol-o, petroleum 

petrosel-o, parsley 

pez-i, to weigh, to have 

pfenig-o, pfennig 

pi-a, pious 

pice-o, fir-tree 

pied-o, foot 

piedestal-o, pedestal 

pig-o, magpie 

pigme-o, pigmy 

pigment-o, pigment 

pik-i, to prick 

piked-o, picket 

pilgrim-i, to make a 

pilk-o, ball (playing) 

pilol-o, pill 

pilot-o, pilot 

pin-o, pine 

pinc-i, to pinch 

pingl-o, pin 

pini-o, species of fir 

pint-o, pinnacle 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


pioĉ-o, pickaxe 
pionir-o, pioneer 
pip-o, pipe 
pipr-o, pepper 
pips-o, pip (disease) 
pir-o, pear 
piramid-o, pyramid 
pirat-o, pirate 
Pirine-oj, Pyrinees 
pirit-o, pyrites 
pirol-o, bullfinch 
piroteknik-o, pyrotech- 
pist-i, to pound 
pistak-o, pistachio 
pistil-o, pistil 
pistol-o, pistol 
piŝt-o, piston 
piton-o, python 
piz-o, pea 
plac-o, plaza 
plac-i, to please 
plad-o, dish 
plafon-o, ceiling 
plagiat-o, plagiarism 
plan-o, plan 
pland-o, sole of foot 
planed-o, planet 
plank-o, floor 
plant-i, to plant 
plantag-o, plantain 
plastik-o, plastic art 
plastr-o, plaster 
plat-a, flat 
plate-o, spoonbill 
platen-o, platinum 

plaud-i, to splash 
plebej-o, a plebeian 
pled-i, to plead (law) 
plej, most 
plekt-i, to weave 
plen-a, full 
plend-i, to complain 
pleonasm-o, pleonasm 
plet-o, tray 
plezur-o, pleasure 
pli, more 

plor-i, to shed tears 
plot-o, roach (fish) 
plu, further 
plug-i, to plow 
plum-o, feather, pen 
plumb-o, lead 
pluŝ-o, plush 
plutokrati-o, plutocracy 
pluv-o, rain 
pluvi-o, plover 
po, at the rate of 
podagr-o, gout 
poem-o, poem 
poent-o, point(in game) 
poet-o, poet 
poezi-o, poetry 
pokal-o, cup, goblet 
pol-o, a Pole 
polemik-o, polemics 
polic-o, police 
poligami-o, polygamy 
poligon-o, buckwheat 
polip-o, polypus 
polis-o, insurance policy 
politeism-o, polytheism 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

politik-o, politics 
polk-o, polka 
poluci-o, pollution 
polur-o, polish 
polus-o, pole (of mag- 
net, etc.) 
polv-o, dust 
pom-o, apple 
pomad-o, pomatum 
pomp-o, pomp 
ponard-o, poniard 
pont-o, bridge 
ponton-o, pontoon 
popl-o, poplar 
popol-o, people 
popular-a, popular 
por, for, in order to, for 

the purpose of 
porcelan-o, porcelain 
porci-o, portion 
pord-o, door 
porfir-o, porphyry 
pork-o, hog 
port-i, to carry 
portal-o, portal 
porter-o, porter (drink) 
portope-o, swordbelt 
portik-o, portico 
portret-o, portrait 
portugal-a, Portuguese 
posed-i, to possess 
posesiv-a, possessive 
post, after 

posten-o, military post 
postul-i, to require 
postulat-o, postulate 

poŝ-o, pocket 
poŜt-o, post, mail 
pot-o, pot 
potas-o, potash 
potenc-a, powerful 
potencial-a, potential 
pov-i, to be able 
poz-i, to pose 
pozitiv-a, positive 
pra', great-, primordial: 
prapatroj, forefathers 
praktik-o, practice 
pram-o, ferry-boat 
prav-a, right 
precipe, chiefly 
preciz-a, precise 
predik-i, to preach 
prefer-i, to prefer 
prefiks-o, prefix 
preĝ-i, to pray 
prelat-o, prelate 
prelud-o, prelude 
prem-i, to press 
premi-o, premium 
premis-o, premise 
pren-i, to take 
prepari, to prepare 
prepozici-o, preposition 
prerogativ-o, preroga- 
pres-i, to print 
presbiter-o, presbyter 
preskaŭ, nearly 
pret-a, ready 
pretekst-o, pretext 
pretend-i, to pretend 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


preter, beyond 
prez-o, price 
prezent-i, to present 
prezid-i, to preside 
pri, about, concerning 
prim-o, first (music) 
primol-o, primrose 
primitiv-a, primitive 
princ-o, prince 
princip-o, principle 
printempo, springtime 
prism-o, prism 
privat-a, private 
privilegi-o, privilege 
pro, on account of 
problem-o, problem 
proced-i, to proceed 
procent-o, interest 
proces-o, legal process 
procesi-o, procession 
produkt-i, to produce 
profan-i, to profane 
profesi-o, profession 
profesor-o, professor 
profet-o, prophet 
profil-o, profile 
profit-o, profit 
profund-a, deep 
program-o, program 
progres-i, to progress 
projekt-o, project 
proklam-i, to proclaim 
prokrast-i, to delay 
proksim-a, near 
prokur-o, procurator 
proletari-o, proletarian 

prolog-o, prologue 
promen-i, to walk 
promes-i, to promise 
promoci-o, promotion 
promontor-o, cape 
pronom-o, pronoun 
propagand-o, propa- 
propon-i, propose 
proporci-o, proportion 
propr-a, one's own 
proskripci-o, proscrip- 
prospekt-o, prospect 
prosper-i, to prosper 
prostitu-i, to prostitute 
protagonist-o, protag- 
protekt-i, to protect 
protest-i, to protest 
protestant-o, protest- 
protokol-o, protocol 
prototip-o, prototype 
prov-i, to try 
proverb-o, proverb 
provinc-o, province 
provincialism-o, pro- 
proviz-i, to provide 
provizor-a, provisional 
proz-o, prose 
prozelit-o, proselyte 
prozodi-o, prosody 
prud-a, prudish 
prudent-a, prudent 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

prujn o, white frost 
prun-o, plum 
prunel-o, sloe 
prunt-o, a loan 
prus-o, a Prussian 
pruv-i, to prove 
psalm-o, psalm 
pseŭda, pseudo, false 
pseudonim-o, pseudo- 
psik-a, psychic 
psikologi-o, psychology 
publik-o, public 
pudel-o, spaniel 
pudr-o, toilet powder 
puf-o, puff, tuft 
pugn-o, fist 
pul-o, flea 
pulm-o, lung 
puls-o, pulse 
pulv-o, gunpowder 

pulvor-o, dust, powder 
pumik-o, pumice 
pump-i, to pump 
pun-i, to punish 
punc-o, crimson-red 
punc-o, punch 
punkt-o, point, dot 
punt-o, lace 
pup-o, doll 
pupil-o, pupil of eye 
pur-a, clean, pure 
pupitr-o, desk 
Purgatori-o, Purgatory 
puritan-o, puritan 
purpur-o, purple 
pus-o, pus 
puŜ-i, to push 
put-o, a well 
putor-o, polecat 
putr-i, to rot 

rab-i, to seize and carry 

away, to rob 
rabarb-o, rhubarb 
rabat-i, to rebate 
raben-o, rabbi 
rabi-o, madness, rabies 
rabot-i, to plane 
raci-a, rational 
rad-o, wheel 
radi-o, ray 

radik-o, root 
radikal-a, radical 
rafan-o, horse-radish 
rafin-i, to refine 
rajd-i, to ride 
rajt-o, right 
raket-o, rocket, fusee 
rakont-i, to relate 
ramp-i, to crawl 
ran-o, frog 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


ranc-a, rancid 
rand-o, edge 
ranĝ-o, rank 
ranunkol-o, ranunculus 
rapid-a, rapid 
rapir-o, foil, rapier 
raport-i, to report 
rapsodi-o, rhapsody 
ras-o, race 
rasp-i, to rasp 
rat-o, rat 

raŭk-a, hoarse, raucus 
raup-o, caterpillar 
rav-i, to enrapture 
raz-i, to shave 
re, again 
reakci-o, reaction 
real-a, real 
real-o, real (coin) 
realist-o, realist 
rebus-o, rebus 
recenz-i, to review 
recept-o, doctor's pre- 
reciprok-a, reciprocal 
redakci-o, editorship 
redakt-i, to edit 
redaktor-o, editor 
redukt-i, to reduce 
redut-o, redoubt 
ref-o, reef (of sail) 
referenc-o, reference 
reformaci-o, reforma- 
refut-i, to refute 
regatt-o, regatta 

reg-i, to govern 

regal-i, to regale 

regeneraci-o, regenera- 

regi-o, state monopoly 

regiment-o, regiment 

region-o, region 

registr-i, to register 

reglement-o. regulation 

regn-o, state 

regol-o, wren 

regres-o, regress 

Tegul-o, a rule 

reĝ-o, king 

reĝisor-o, stage-man- 

rejs-o, reis (coin) 

reklam-o, advertising 

rekomend-i, to com- 

rekompenc-i, to reward 

rekord-o, record 

rekrut-o, recruit 

rekt-a, straight 

rektor-o, rector 

rekviem-o, requiem 

rekvizici-o, requisition 

rekvizit-o, requisite 

rel-o, rail 

relief-o, relief, embos- 
sed work 

religi-o, religion 

rem-i, to row 

rembur-i, to stuff 

remiz-o, garage, coach 


Esperanto- English Vocabulary 

rempar-o, bulwark 
ren-o, kidney 
rendevu-o, rendezvous 
renegat-o, renegade 
renkont-i, to meet 
rent-o, income 
renvers-i, to upset 
repertuar-o, repertoire 
reprezent-i, represent 
reputaci-o, reputation 
reskript-o, rescript 
respekt-i, to respect 
respektiv-e, respect- 
respond-i, to respond 
respublik-o, republic 
rest-i, to remain 
restoraci-o, restaurant 
ret-o, net, netting 
retin-o, retina 
retorik-o, rhetoric 
retort-o, retort (c/iem.) 
retrospektiv-a, retro- 
reumatism-o, rheuma- 
rev-i, to dream 
revenĝ-o, revenge 
reviz-i, to revise 
revoluci-o, revolution 
revolver-o, revolver 
revu-o, review, journal 
rezerv-i, to reserve 
rezign-i, to resign 

rezignaci-o, resignation 

(to one's lot, etc.) 
rezin-o, resin 
rezoluci-o, resolution 
rezon-i, to reason 
rezult-i, to result 
rib-o, currant 
ribel-i, to rebel 
ricev-i, to receive 
riĉ-a, rich 
rid-i, to laugh 
rif-o, reef 

rifuĝ-i, to take refuge 
rifuz-i, to refuse 
rigard-i, to look at 
rig-i, to rig 
rigid-a, rigid 
rigl-i, to bolt 
rigor-a, rigora 
rikan-i, to grin, sneer 
rikolt-i, to gather 
rilat-i, to relate 
rim-o, rhyme 
rimark-i, to remark 
rimed-o, means 
rimen-o, strap 
rimes-i, to remit money 
ring-o, ring 
rinocer-o, rhinoceros 
rip-o, rib 
ripar-i, to repair 
ripet-i, to repeat 
ripoz-i, to repose 
riproĉ-i, to reproach 
risk-i, to risk 
rism-o, ream 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


risort-o, spring (metal) 
rit-o, rite 
ritm-o, rythm 
river-o, river 
riverenc-o, reverence 
riz-o, rice 
rob-o, robe 
rod-o, road (sea) 
rojalism-o, royalism 
rok-o, rock 
rol-o, role 
roman-o, a novel 
romanc-o, ballad 
romantik-a, romantic 
romp-i, to breok 
rond-o, circle 
ronk-i, to snore 
ros-o, dew 
rosmar-o, walrus 
rosmaren-o, rosemary 
rost-i, to roast 

rostr-o, trunk, snout 
rot-o, company (mi'lil.) 
rotond-o, rotunda 
roz-o, rose 
rozari-o, rosary 
rub-o, rubbish 
ruband-o, ribbon 
ruben-o, ruby 
rubl-o, rouble 
rubrik-o, head-line 
ruĝ-a, red 
ruin-oj, ruins 
rukt-i, to eructate 
rul-i, to roll 
rum-o, rum 
ruman-o, a Roumanian 
rus-o, a Russian 
rust-i, to rust 
ruŝ-o, ruche, ruching 
rutin-o, routine 
ruz-a, cunning 


sabat-o, Saturday 
sabl-o, sand 
sabr-o, saber 
safir-o, sapphire 
safran-o, saffron 
sagac-a, sagacious 
seg-o, arrow 
saĝ-a, wise 
sagu-o, sage 
sak-o, sack 
sakr-o, sacrum 

sakrament-o, sacrament 

sakrilegi-o, sacrilege 

saks-o, a Saxon 

Saksujo, Saxony 

sal-o, salt 

salajr-o, salary 

salamandr-o, salaman- 

salamoniak-o, sal am- 

salat-o, salad 


Espera?ito- English Vocabulary 

sald-o, balance of an 

salik-o, willow 
saliv-o, Saliva 
salm-o, salmon 
salon-o, reception-room 
salpetr-o, saltpetre 
salt-i, to jump 
salut-i, to salute 
salvi-o, sage 
sam-a, same 
sambuk-o, elder (tree) 
samovar-o, samovar 
san-a, healthy 
sandal-o, sandal 
sang-o, blood 
sankci-o, sanction 
sangvin-a, sanguine 
sankt-a, holy 
sanskrit-o, Sanskrit 
sap-o, soap 
sard-o, a Sardinian 
sardin-o, sardine 
sark-i, to weed 
sarkasm-o, sarcasm 
sat-a, satiated 
Satan-o, Satan 
satir-o, satire 
satirus-o, satyr 
satrap-o, satrap 
satur-i, to saturate 
sauc-o, sauce 
sav-i, to save 
scen-o, scene 
sceptr-o, scepter 
sci-i, to know 

scienc-p, science 
sciur-o, squirrel 
se, if 

seb-o, tallow 
sed, but 
seg-i, to saw 
segment-o, segment 
seĝ-o, chair 
sek-a, dry 
sekal-o, rye 
sekc-i, to dissect 
sekci-o, section 
sekret-o, secret 
sekretari-o, secretary 
seks-o, sex 
sekst-o, sixth (music) 
sekt-o, sect 
sekulariz-i, secularize 
sekund-o, second 
sekv-i, to follow 
sel-o, saddle 
selakt-o, whey 
sem-i, to sow 
semafor-o, semaphore 
semajn-o, week 
semid-a, Semitic 
seminari-o, seminary 
sen, without 
senat-o, senate 
senc-o, sense, meaning 
send-i, to send 
sensaci-o, sensation 
sent-i, to feel 
sentenc-o, sentence 
sentimental-a, senti- 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


Sep, seven 
sepi-o, cuttle-fish 
Septembr-o, September 
seraf-o, seraph 
serb-o, a Servian 
serĉ-i, to seek 
seren-a, serene 
serenad-o, serenade 
serĝent-o, sergeant 
seri-o, series 
serioz-a, serious 
serpent-o, serpent 
serur-o, lock 
serv-i, to serve 
servic-o, course (at a 

servut-o, servitude 
ses, six 

sever-a, severe 
sezon-o, season 
sfer-o, sphere 
sfinks-o, sphinx 
si, self 

Siberi-o, Siberia 
sibl-i, to hiss 
sid-i, to sit 
sieĝ-i, to besiege 
sifilis-o, syphilis 
sifon-o, syphon 
sigel-i, to seal 
sign-o, sign 
signal-o, signal 
signif-i, to signify 
silab-o, syllable 
silent-i, to be silent 
silik-o, flint 

silk-o, silk 
silogism-o, syllogism 
siluet-o, silhouette 
silur-o, shad 
silvi-o, hedge-sparrow 
simbol-o, symbol 
simetri-o, symmetry 
simfoni-o, symphony 
simi-o, monkey, ape 
simil-a, similar 
simpati-o, sympathy 
simpl-a, simple 
simptom-o, symptom 
sinagog-o, synagogue 
sincer-a, sincere 
sindik-o, syndic 
sindikat-o, syndicate 
sinedri-o, sanhedrim 
singult-i, to hiccup 
sinjor-o, Mr., Sir 
sinod-o, synod 
sinonim-o, synonym 
sintaks-o, syntax 
sintez-o, synthesis 
siren-o, siren 
Siri-o, Syria 
siring-o, lilac 
sirop-o, syrup 
sistem-o, system 
sitel-o, pail 
situaci-o, situation 
skabel-o, stool 
skaben-o, alderman 
skabi-o, itch 
skadr-o, squadron 
skal-o, scale (of map) 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

skalp-o, scalp 
skandal-o, scandal 
skandinav-o, a Scandi- 
skapol-o, shoulder-blade 
skarab-o, beetle 
skarlat-o, scarlet 
skarp-o, scarf 
skatol-o, small box, case 
skelet-o, skeleton 
skeptik-a, sceptical 
skerm-i, to fence 
skiz-i, to sketch 
sklav-o, slave 
skolastik-a, scholastic 
skolop-o, woodcock 
skbmbr-o, mackerel 
skorbut-o, scurvy 
skorpi-o, scorpion 
skot-o, a Scot 
skrap-i, to scrape 
skrib-i, to write 
skrupul-a, scrupulous 
sku-i, to shake 
skulpt-i, to sculpture 
skun-o, schooner 
skurĝ-o, whip, scourge 
skvam-o, scales (fish) 
slang-o, slang 
slav-o, a Slav 
smerald-o, emerald 
smilak-o, sarsaparilla 
smirg-o, emery 
sobr-a, sober 
soci-o, society at large, 
the social body 

soci-a, social-a, social 
socialism-o, socialism 
socialist-o, socialist 
sociologi-o, sociology 
societ-o, society 
sod-o, soda 
sof-o, sofa 
sofism-o, sophism 
soif-i, to be thirsty 
sojl-o, threshold 
sol-a, alone 
sol-o, solo 
soldat-o, soldier 
sole-o, sole (fish) 
solen-a, solemn 
solid-a, solid, substan- 
tial, respectable 
solidar-a, jointly liable 
soliter-o, tape-worm 
solv-i, to solve 
solvent-a, solvent 
somer-o, summer 
son-i, to give a sound 
sonat-o, sonata 
sond-i, sound, fathom 
sonĝ-o, dream 
sonor-i, to ring 
sopir-i, to sigh for 
sopran-o, soprano 
sorb-i, to absorb 
sorĉ-o, witchcraft 
sorik-o, shrew-mouse 
sorp-o, black haw 
sort-o, fate 
sovaĝ-a, wild 
spac-o, space 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


spalir-o, espalier 

spasm-o, spasm 

spat-o, spavin 

spec-o, species 

special-a, special 

specifik-i, to specify 

specimen-o, specimen 

spektr-o, specter 

spegul-o, mirror 

spektakl-o, spectacle 

spekulaci-o, specula- 

spekulativ-a, specula- 

sperm-o, sperm 

spert-a, experienced 

spez-o, a clearing of 
funds : enspezi, to 
take in ; elspezi, to 
pay out 

spic-o, spice 

spik-o, ear (of grain) 

spin-o, spine 

spinac-o, spinach 

spindel-o, spindle 

spion-o, a spy 

spir-i, to breathe 

spirit-o, spirit 

spiritism-o, spiritism 

spiritualism-o, spirit- 

spiritus-o, spirit (alco- 

spite, in spite of 

split-o, splint, sliver 

spong-o, sponge 

spontane-a, spontane- 

sporad-a, sporadic 

sport-a, sport 

sprit-a, witty 

spron-o, spur 

sput-i, to spit, spit up 
blood, etc. 

stab-o, staff (army) 

stabl-o, work-bench 

staci-o, station 

stadi-o, stadium 

stal-o, shed, stall 

stalagmit-o, stalagmite 

stalaktit-o, stalactite 

stamp-i, to stamp, to 

stan-o, pewter 

standard-o, flag 

stang-o, pole 

stapl-o, pile, heap 

star-i, to stand 

stard-o, bustard 

stat-o, state, condition 

statik-a, static 

statistik-o, statistics 

statu-o, statue 

statur-o, stature 

steb-i, to stitch 

stel-o, star 

stenografi-o, stenogra- 

step-o, steppe 

stereoskop-o, stereo- 


Esperanto- English Vocabulary 

stereotip-o, stereotype 
sterk-o, dung, manure 
stern-i, to stretch or 

sprawl out 
stertor-i, to make a 

harsh noise 
stil-o, style 
stimul-i, to stimulate 
stipo, broom (shrub) 
stof-o, Russian measure 
stoik-a, stoical 
stomak-o, stomach 
stopl-o, stubble 
strab-i, to squint 
strang-a, strange 
strat-o, street 
strec-i, to stretch 
strek-i, to streak 
stri-o, streak, stripe 
strig-o, owl 
strigl-i, to curry (comb) 
strik-o, strike (workers) 
striknin-o, strychnine 
strof-o, strophe 
struktur-o, structure 
strut-o, ostrich 
student-o, student 
stuk-i, to stucco 
stump-o, stub, stump 
stup-o, tow 
sturg-o, sturgeon 
sturn-o, starling 
sub, under, beneath 
subit-a, sudden 
subjekt-o, subject 
subjektiv-a, subjective 

subjunktiv-o, subjunc- 

sublimat-o, sublimate 

substanc-o, substance 

substantiv-o, substan- 

subtil-a, subtle 

subtrah-i, to subtract 

suĉ-i, to suck 

sud-o, south 

sufer-i, to suffer 

sufiĉ-a, sufficient 

sufiks-o, suffix 

sufok-i, to suffocate 

sugesti-o, suggestion 

suk-o, sap, juice 

sukcen-o, amber 

sukces-i, to succeed 

suker-o, sugar 

sulfur-o, sulphur 

sulk-o, furrow, wrinkle 

sultan-o, sultan 

sum-o, sum 

sun-o, sun 

sup-o, soup 

super, above 

superstiĉ-o, supersti- 

supoz-i, to suppose 

supr-e, above 

sur, on 

surd-a, deaf 

surpriz-i, to surprise 

surtut-o, overcoat 

suspekt-i, to suspect 

suveren-o, sovereign 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


svarm-i, teem, swarm 
svat-i. to act as match- 
sved-o, a Swede 

sven-i, to swoon 
sving-i, to swing 
svis-o, a Swiss 


ŝaf-o, sheep 
ŝaft-o, shaft (machine) 
ŝah-o, shah 
ŝajn-i, to seem 
ŝak-oj, chess 
Ŝakal-o, jackal 
Ŝakt-o, shaft (mining) 
ŝal-o, shawl 
ŝalup-o, shallop 
ŝalm-o, straw, stalk 
ŝam-o, chamois skin 
Ŝanc-o, luck, chance 
ŝancel-i, to cause to 

hesitate, to shake 
Ŝanĝ-i, to change 
ŝankr-o, canker 
ŝarad-o, charade 
ŝarg-i, to load, charge 

(a gun, etc.) 
ŝarĝ-i, to load (wagon, 

car, etc.) 
Ŝark-o, shark 
ŝat-i, to prize, like 
ŝaŭm-o, foam 
ŝel-o, shell 
ŝelak-o, shellac 
ŝelk-o, suspenders 

ŝerc-i, to joke 
Si, she 
Ŝild-o, shield 
Ŝiling-o, shilling 
ŝim-i, to get mouldy, 

to spoil 
ŝind-o, shingle 
ŝink-o, ham 
ŝip-o, ship 
ŝir-i, to tear 
ŝirm-i, to shield 
ŝlim-o, slime 
slos-i, to lock 
ŝmac-i, to kiss noisily 
ŝmir-i, to smear with 
ŝnur-o, string 
ŝov-i, to shove, push 
ŝovel-i, to shovel 
ŝovinism-o, jingoism 
ŝpar-i, to be sparing 
ŝpic-o, Spitz (dog) 
ŝpin-i, to spin 
ŝpruc-i, to spurt, spout 
ŝrank-o, cupboard 
Ŝrapnel-o, shrapnel 
Ŝraŭb-o, screw 
ŝtal-o, steel 


Esperanto- English Vocabulary 

ŝtat-o, state 
ŝtel-i, to steal 
ŝtip-o, block of wood 
Ŝtof-o, goods, stuff 
ŝton-o, stone 
Ŝtop-i, to stop up 
ŝtrump-o, stocking 
ŝtup-o, stair-step 

ŝu-o, shoe 
ŝuld-i, to owe 
Ŝultr-o, shoulder 
ŝut-i, to chute or pour 

out grain, sand, etc. 
Ŝvel-i, to swell 
ŝvit-i, to perspire 

t. c, tio est as, that is 
tabak-o, tobacco 
taban-o, gad-fly 
tabel-o, table (figures, 

names, etc.) 
tabl-o, table (furniture) 
tabul-o, plank 
taburet-o, tabouret 
taĉment-o, a squad of 

taft-o, taffeta 
tag-o, day 
tajlor-o, tailor 
tajd-o, tide 
taks-i, to estimate the 

value of, to price 
taksus-o, yew 
takt-o, bar (music) 
taktik-o, tactics 
talent-o, talent 
taler-o, thaler 
tali-o, waist 
talisman-o, talisman 

talmud-o, talmud 
talp-o, mole (animal) 
talk-o, talc 
tambur-o, drum 
tamburin-o, tambourine 
tamen, however 
tamtam-o, tom-tom 
tan-i, to tan 
tandem-o tandem 
tangent-o, tangent 
tanin-o, tannin 
tapet-o, tapestry 
tapiŝ-o, carpet 
tar-o, tare (of weight) 
tarantel-o, tarantella 
tarantul-o, tarantula 
tarif-o, tariff 
tas-o, cup 
task-o, task 
tartar-o, cream of tartar 
tatar-o, a Tartar 
tatu-i, to tattoo 
taŭg-i, to be fit for 

Esperanto- E?iglish Vocabulary 


tavol-o, layer 
te-o, tea 
teatr-o, theater 
ted-i, to be tedious 
teg-i, cover completely 
tegment-o, roof 
teism-o, theism 
teknik-a, technical 
teks-i, to weave 
telefon-o, telephone 
telegraf-o, telegraph 
telepati-o, telepathy 
teler-o, plate 
teleskop-o, telescope 
tem-o, theme, subject 
temp-o, time 
temperament-o, tem- 
tempi-o, temple (head) 
templ-o, temple 
ten-i, to keep, hold 
tend-o, tent 
tenden-o, tendon 
tendenc-o, tendency 
tenor-o, tenor 
tent-i, to tempt 
teologi-o, theology 
teori-o, theory 
ter-o, earth 

terapeŭtik-o, therapeu- 
teras-o, terrace 
tercet-o, musical trio 
terebint-o, turpentine 
teritori-o, territory 
termin-o, definition 

termit-o, termite 

termometr-o, thermom- 

tern-i, to sneeze 

terur-o, terror 

testament-i, bequeath 

testik-o, testicle 

testud-o, tortoise 

tetan-o, lockjaw 

tetr-o, grouse 

tetra-o, hazel-hen 

tez-o, thesis 

tia, such, that kind 

tial, therefore 

tiam, then 

tiar-o, tiara 

tibi-o, tibia 

tie, there 

tiel, thus, in that way 

ties, that person's 

tif-o, typhus 

tigr-o, tiger 

tikl-i, to tickle 

tili-o, linden 

tim-i, to fear 

timian-o, thyme 

timon-o, pole or shaft 
of vehicle 

tin-o, vat 

tindr-o, tinder 

tine-o, moth 

tinktur-o, tincture 

tint-i, to jingle 

tio, that, that thing 

tiom, that much, that 


Esperanto-English Vocabulary 

tip-o, type 

tipografi-o, typography 
tir-i, to draw, pull 
tiran-o, tyrant 
titol-o, title 
tiu, that person, that 
tog-o, toga 
tol-o, linen 
toler-i, to tolerate 
tom-o, tome, 
tomat-o, tomato 
tomb-o, tomb 
tombak-o, tombac 
ton-o, tone 
tond-i, to shear, clip 
tondr-i, to thunder 
topaz-o, topaz 
topografi-o, topography 
torĉ-o, torch 
tord-i, to wind, twist 
torent-o, torrent 
torf-o, peat, turf 
torn-i, to turn on lathe 
tornistr-o, knapsack 
torped-o, torpedo 
tort-o, tart 
tost-o, toast 
tra, through 
trab-o, beam 
tradici-o, tradition 
traduk-i, to translate 
traf-i, to hit the mark 
tragedi-o, tragedy 
traĥe-o, trachea 
trajt-o, feature 
trakt-i, to treat of 

traktat-o, treatise 
tram-o, tram 
tranĉ-i,to cut 
trankvil-a, calm 
trans, across, beyond 

transitiv-a, transitive 
trapez-o, trapeze 
trat-i, to draw (a draft, 

note, etc.) 
travesti-o, travesty 
tre, very 

tref-o, club (in cards) 
trem-i, to tremble 
tremolo, asp, aspen 
tremp-i, dip, immerse 
tren-i, to drag 
trezor-o, treasure 
tri, three 
tribun-o, rostrum 
tribunal-o, tribunal 
tribut-o, tribute 
tricikl-o, tricycle 
trik-i, knit 

trikot-o, knitted work 
tril-o, trill 
trink-i, to drink 
trip-oj, tripe 
tritik-o, wheat 
triumf-o, triumph 
trivial-a, trivial 
tro, too, too much 
trofe-o, trophy 
trog-o, trough, manger 
tromb-o, water-spout 

Esperanto- English Vocabulary 


trombon-o, trombone 
tromp-i, to deceive 
tron-o, throne 
trop-o, trope 
tropik-o, tropic 
trot-i, to trot 
trotuar-o, sidewalk 
trov-i, to find 
tru-o, hole 
trud-i, to intrude 
truf-o, truffle 
trul-o, trowel 
trump-o, a large horn 
trumpet-o, trumpet 
trunk-o, trunk (of tree) 
trup-o, troupe 
trust-o, trust, syndicate 
trut-o, trout 
tualet-o, toilet 
tub-o, tube 

tuber-o, bulb or knot 
(in plants) 

tuf-o, tuft 
tuj, immediately 
tuk-o, a cloth 
tul-o, tulle 
tulip-o, tulip 
tumult-o, tumult 
tunel-o, tunnel 
tunik-o, tunic 
tur-o, tower 
turban-o, turban 
turbin-o, turbine 
turd-o, thrush 
turist-o, tourist 
turk-o, Turk 
turkis-o, turquoise 
turment-i, to torment 
turn-i, to turn 
turnir-o, tournament 
turt-o, dove 
tus-i, to cough 
tuŝ-i, to touch 
tut-a, entire, whole 


U, sign of imperative : 

amu, love 
uj', that which contains: 

cigarujo, cigar-case 
ukaz-o, ukase 
ul\ a person noted for : 

timo, /ear) timulo, 

a coward. 
ulcer-o, ulcer 
uleks-o, furze 

ulm-o, elm 
uln-o, ell 

ultimat-o, ultimatum 
ultramar-a, ultramar- 
urn', indefinite suffix 
umbilik-o, navel 
unc-o, ounce 
ung-o, finger-nail 
uniform-o, uniform 


Esperanto- English Vocabulary 

univers-o, universe 
universal-a, universal 
universitat-o, univers- 
unik-a, unique 
unu, one 
ur-o, ure-ox 
uragan-o, hurricane 
uran-o, uranium 
urb-o, city, town 
urin-i, to urinate 
urn-o, urn 

urogal-o, heath-cock 

urs-o, bear 

urtik-o, nettle 

us, conditional of verb : 

amus, might love 
uter-o, womb, uterus 
util-a, useful 
utilism-o, utilitarianism 
utopi-o, utopia 
uvertur-o, overture 
uz-i, to use 
uzurp-i, to usurp 

vad-i, to wade 
vafl-o, waffle 
vag-i, to roam 
vagon-o, railway car 
vakcini-o, whortleberry 
vak-i, to be vacant 
vaks-o, wax 
val-o, valley 
valid-a, valid 
valiz-o, valise 
valor-i, to be worth 
vals-i, to waltz 
valv-o, valve 
vampir-o, vampire 
van-a, vain 
vandal-o, vandal 
vanel-o, lapwing 
vang-o, cheek 
vanil-o, vanilla 
vant-a, vain, futile 

vapor-o, vapor 
varb-i, to recruit, enlist 
variol-o, small-pox 
varm-a, warm 
vart-i, to nurse 
vasal-o, vassal 
vast-a, wide, vast 
vat-o, wadding 
Vatikan-o, Vatican 
vaz-o, vase 
vazelin-o, vaseline 
ve ! woe ! 

veget-i, to vegetate 
vegetar-a, vegetarian 
vejn-o, vein 
vek-i, to awake 
vekt-o, scale beam 
vel-o, sail 
velen-o, vellum 
velk-i, to fade 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 


velociped-o, velocipede 
velur-o, velvet 
ven-i, to come 
vend-i, to sell 
vendred-o, Friday 
venen-o, poison 
vener-a, venereal 
venĝ-i, to avenge 
venki, to vanquish 
vent-o, wind 
ventol-i, to ventilate 
ventr-o, abdomen 
ver-a, true 
verand-o, veranda 
verb-o, verb 
verben-o, verbena 
verd-a, green 
verdigr-o, verdigris 
verdikt-o, verdict 
verg-o, switch, rod 
verk-i, to compose 
verm-o, worm 
vermut-o, vermouth 
vermiĉel-o, vermicelli 
vers-o, verse 
verst-o, verst 
verŝ-i, to pour 
vert-o, fore part of the 

vertag-o, terrier 
vertebr-o, vertebra 
vertikal-a, vertical 
veruk-o, wart 
verv-o, rapture 
vesp-o, wasp 
yesper-o, evening 

vespert-o, bat 

vest-i, to dress 

vestibl-o, vestibule 

veŝt-o, vest 

vet-i, to bet 

veter-o, weather 

veteran-o, veteran 

veterinar-o, veterinary 

vetur-i, travel, journey 
by vehicle 

vezik-o, bladder 

vezir-o, vizier 

vi, you 

viadukt-o, viaduct 

viand-o, meat 

vibr-i, to vibrate 

viburn-o, viburnum 

vic-o, rank, turn, order 

vici-o, vetch 

vid-i, to see 

vidv-o, widower 

vigl-a, alert 

vikari-o, curate 

vilaĝ-o, village 

vin-o, wine 

vinagr-o, vinegar 

vind-i, to swaddle 

vinjet-o, vignette 

vinkt-i, to rivet, clinch 

vintr-o, winter 

viol-o, violet 

violon-o, violin 

violonĉel-o, a violon- 

vip-o, whip 

viper-o, viper 


Esperanto- English Vocabulary 

vir-o, a man 
virg-a, virginal 
virt-o, virtue 
virtuoz-o, virtuoso 
visk-o, mistletoe 
viski-o, whisky 
vist-o, whist 
viŝ-i, to wipe 
vitr-o, glass 
vitriol-o, vitriol 
viv-i, to live 
vizaĝ-o, face 
vizi-o, vision 
vizier-o, vizor 
vizit-i, to visit 
voĉ-o, voice 
voj-o,way, road 
vojaĝ-i, to voyage 
vojevod-o, wayvode, a 
small Polish official 

vok-i, to call 
vokal-o, a vowel 
vol-i, to will 
volfram-o, wolfram 
volont-e, willingly 
volum-o, volume(book) 
volumen-o, volume 
volupt-o, volupty 
volv-i, to roll, wind 
vom-i, to vomit 
vort-o, word 
vost-o, tail 
vual-o, veil 

vulgar-a, vulgar, com- 
vulkan-o, volkano 
vulp-o, fox 
vultur-o, vulture 
vund-i, to wound 

zebr-o, zebra 
zelat-o, zealot 
zenit-o, zenith 
zibel-o, sable-marten 
zigzag-o, zigzag 
zingibr-o, ginger 
zink-o, zinc 
zizel-o, zizel 

zodiak-o, zodiac 
zon-o, girdle 
zoologi-o, zoology 
zorg-i, care for, watch, 

see after 
zuav-o, zouave 
zum-i, to hum 


abandon, forlasi 
abash, hontigi 
abbot, abato 
abbreviate, mallongigi 
abdomen, ventro 
abduct, forrabi 
abide, resti, loĝi 
ability, talento 
able, pova 

abolish, forigi, nuligi 
abomination, abomeno 
abound, svarmi 
about, preskaŭ, ĉirkaŭ 
above, supre 
abscess, absceso 
absent, forestanta 
absolute, absoluta 
absorb, sorbi 
abstract, abstrakta 
absurd, absurda 
abuse, trouzi 
academy, akademio 
accede, cedi, konsenti 
accelerate, akceli 
accent (mark), signo 
accent, akcento 
accept, akcepti 
accident, okazo 
accompany, akompani 

according to, laŭ 
accouche, akuŝi 
account, konto, kalku- 

lo, rakonto 
accumulate, amasigi 
accurate, akurata 
accuse, kulpigi 
accustomed, kutima 
ace, aso 
ache, doloro 
acid, acido 
acknowledge, konfesi, 

acorn, glano 
acquaint, sciigi, konigi 
acquiesce, konsenti 
acquire, akiri 
acrobat, akrobato 
act, ago, akto 
active, agema, aktiva 
actor, aktoro 
actual, efektiva 
adage, proverbo 
add, aldoni, adicii 
address, adresi 
adept, adepto 
adequate, adekvata 
adhere, aliĝi 
adieu, adiaŭ 


English-Esperanto Vocabulary 

adjacent, apuda 
adjective, adjektiva 
administer, administri 
admiral, admiralo 
admire, admiri 
admonish, admoni 
adopt, adopti, alpreni 
adore, adori 
adorn, ornami 
adulterate, falsi 
adultery, adulto 
Advent, Advento 
adverb, adverbo 
advertise, anonci 
advise, konsili, avizi 
affable, afabla 
affair, afero 
affect, afekti 
affection, amo, afekcio 
affirm, atesti 
affirmative, jesa 
affix, afikso 
afterward, poste 
again, ree 
ogainst, kontraŭ 
agate, agato 
agent, agento 
agitate, agiti 
ago, antaŭ 
agony, agonio 
agree, interkonsenti 
agriculture, agrikulturo 
ah! ha! 
ahead, antaŭe 
aid, helpi, asisti 
aim, celo 

air, aero, aerumi, ario 
alas ! alas ! 
album, albumo 
albumen, albumeno 
alcohol, alkoholo 
algebra, algebro 
alias, alie 
alike, simila 
alive, viva 
all, ĉiom, ĉiuj 
allot, lotumi 
allow, permesi 
allude, aludi 
allure, logi 
almighty, ĉiopova 
almost, preskaŭ 
alms, almozo 
aloft, supre 
alone, sole 
alphabet, alfabeto 
Alps, Alpoj 
already, jam 
also, ankaŭ 
altar, altaro 
although, kvankam 
alto, aldo 
altogether, tute 
alum, aluno 
always, ĉiam 
amalgam, amalgamo 
ambassador, ambasa- 

amber, sukceno 
ambition, ambicio 
ambush, embuski 
America, Ameriko 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


amidst, meze 
ammonia, amoniako 
among, inter 
ample, sufiĉa 
amuse, amuzi 
analogy, analogio 
analyze, analizi 
anarchy, anarĥio 
anatomy, anatomio 
ancestor, prapatro 
anchor, ankro 
ancient, antikva 
and, kaj 
anger, kolero 
angle, angulo 
animal, besto 
ankle, maleolo 
announce, anonci 
anonymous, anonima 
answer, respondi 
ant, formiko 
antelope, antilopo 
antipathy, antipatio 
antique, antikva 
anvil, amboso 
any, ia 
anybody, iu 
anybody's, ies 
anyhow, iel 
any quantity, iom 
any time, iam 
anything, io 
anywhere, ie 
apart, aparte 
apathy, apatio 
ape, simio 

apology, apologio 
apoplexy, apopleksio 
apostle, apostolo 
apostrophe, apostrofo 
apparatus, aparato 
appear, ŝajni, aperi 
appetite, apetito 
applaud, aplaŭdi 
apple, porno 
appoint, nomi, elekti 
approach, proksimiĝi 
approve, aprobi 
apricot, abrikoto 
April, Aprilo 
Arab, arabo 
arbitrary, arbitra 
arbitration, arbitracio 
arbor, laŭbo 
arc, arko 
arcade, arkado 
archipelago, insularo 
arctic, arktika 
ardent, fervora 
arena, areno 
argue, argumenti 
arm, armi, brako 
army, armeo 
aroma, aromo 
around, ĉirkaŭ 
arrest, aresti 
arrogant, aroganta 
arrow, sago 
arsenic, arseniko 
art, arto 
artery, arterio 
artichoke, artiŝoko 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

article, artikolo, aĵo 
artist, artisto 
as, kiel, tiel 
ashes, cindro 
Asia, Azio 
ask, demandi, peti 
asphalt, asfalto 
aspire, aspiri, celi 
assault, atako 
assign, asigni 
assist, asisti, helpi 
astringent, adstringa 
astrology, astrologio 
astronomy, astronomio 
at, ĉe 

atheism, ateismo 
athlete, atleto 
atmosphere, atmosfero 
atom, atomo 
attack, ataki 
attain, atingi 
attempt, atenci 
attend, atendi, atenti, 

servi, zorgi 
attention, atento 
attest, atesti 
attract, altiri 
auction, aŭkcio 
audience, aŭditorio 

aunt, onklino 
auspices, aŭspicoj 
Australia, Aŭstralio 
Austrian, aŭstro 
author, aŭtoro 
authority, aŭtoritato 
autocrat, aŭtokrato 
automatic, automata 
automobile, aŭtomobilo 
autumn, aŭtuno 
avalanche, lavango 
avaricious, avara 
avenge, venĝi 
average, meza 
aversion, antipatio 
avert, deturni 
avid, avida 
avoid, eviti 
await, atendi 
awaken, veki 
away, for 
awful, terura 
awkward, nelerta 
awl, aleno 
axe, hakilo 
axis, akso 
axiom, aksiomo 
azote, azoto 
azure, lazura 

babble, babili 
baboon, paviano 
baby, infaneto, ido 

bachelor, fraŭlo 
back, dorso, re, poste 
badge, simbolo, devizo 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


badger, melo 
bag, sako 

bagatelle, bagatelo 
baggage, pakaĵo 
bail, kaŭcio 
balance, balanci 
balance-sheet, bilanco 
balcony, balkono 
bald, senhara 
ball, balo, pilko, globo 
ballad, balado 
ballast, balasto 
ballet, baleto 
balloon, balono 
ballot, baloti 
balsam, balzamo 
bamboo, bambuo 
banana, banano 
band, ligilo, bando 
bandage, bandaĝo 
banish, ekzili 
bank, banko, bordo 
banker, bankiero 
banner, flago,standardo 
banquet, festeno 
baptize, bapti 
bar, bari 

barbarian, barbaro 
barber, barbiro 
bare, nuda 
bark, boji, barko 
barley, hordeo 
barometer, barometro 
baron, barono 
barrel, barelo 
baritone, baritono 

base, fundamento 
basin, pelvo 
basket, korbo 
bass (music), baso 
bat, vesperto 
battery, baterio 
battle, batalo 
bayonet, bajoneto 
bazar, bazaro 
be, esti 
beak, beko 
beam, trabo 
bean, fabo 
bear, urso 

bear, naski, produkti 
beard, barbo 
beast, bruto, besto 
beat, bati 
beautiful, bela 
beaver, kastoro 
because, car 

bed, lito 

bee, abelo 
beech, fago 
beef, bovaĵo 
beer, biero 
beet, beto 
beetle, skarabo 
before, antaŭ 
beg,petegi, petialmozon 
begin, komenci 
behave, konduti 
behind, post 

belch, rukti 
Belgian, belgo 
believe, kredi 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

bell, sonorilo 
belly, ventro 
belong, aparteni 
below, sub, malsupre 
belt, zono 

bench, benko, stablo 
bend, fleksi 
benediction, beno 
berry, bero 
besides, krom 
besiege, sieĝi 
bet, veti 
between, inter 
beyond, trans 
Bible, biblio 
bicycle, biciklo 
big, gxanda 
bigamy, bigamio 
bile, galo 
bill, bilo, kalkulo, beko, 

kambio, afiŝo 
bind, ligi, bindi, ban- 

biography, biografio 
biology, biologio 
birch, betulo 
bird, birdo 
biscuit, biskvito 
bishop, episkopo 
bit, peco 
bite, mordi 
black, nigra 
blackbird, merlo 
bleat, bleki 
bless, beni 
blind, blinda 

block, Ŝtipo, bloko, 

blot, makulo 
blow, blovi 
blouse, bluzo, kitelo 
blue, blua 
boa, boao 
board, tabulo 
boast, fanfaroni 
boat, boato 
body, korpo 
Bohemian, bohemo 
boil, boli 
bolt, rigli 
bomb, bombo 
bonbon, bombono 
bone, osto 
bonnet, Capo 
book, libro 
boot, boto 
booth, budo 
borax, borakso 
bore, bori 

borrow, prunte preni 
bosom, brusto 
botany, botaniko 
both, ambaŭ 
bottle, botelo 
bottom, fundo 
boulevard, bulvardo 
boundary, limo 
bouquet, bukedo 
bow, saluti 
bow, arĉo, pafarko, 

bowl, pelvo, kaliko 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


box, kesto, skatolo 

pugnebato, loĝio 
boy, knabo 
brag, fanfafoni 
brain, cerbo 
brake, haltigilo 
bran, brano 
branch, branĉo 
brave, brava 
bray, bleki 
bread, pano 
break, rompi 
breast, brusto, mamo 
breathe, spiri 
brick, briko 
bridge, ponto 
bridle, brido 
brigade, brigado 
brigand, bandito 
bright, hela, brila 
brighten, briligi 
brilliant, brilianto 
bring, alkonduki 
brink, rando 
briny, sala 
brittle, facilrompa 
broad, larĝa 
brochure, broŝuro 
bronchitis, bronkito 
brooch, broĉo 
brood, kovi 
brook, rivereto 
broom, balailo 
brother, frato 
brown, bruna 
bruise, kontuzi 

brush, broso 
brute, bruto 
bucket, sitelo 
buckle, buko 
buckwheat, poligono 
bud, burĝono 
buffalo, bubalo 
bug, cimo 
build, konstrui 
bulb, bulbo 
Bulgarian, bulgaro 
bull, bovoviro 
bullet, kuglo 
bun, bulko 
bundle, fasko 
bungle, fuŝi 
burden, ŝarĝo 
bureau, komodo, oficejo 
burn, bruli, bruligi 
burnish, poluri 
burner, flamingo 
bury, enfosi, enterigi 
bush, arbeto 
bushel, buŝelo 
business, afero, pro- 

fesio, komerco, ofico 
bust, busto 
busy, okupata 
but, sed, krom, escepte 
butcher, buĉi 
butter, butero 
butterfly, papilio 
button, butono, buton- 

buy, aĉeti 
by, per, apud, preter 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

cab, fiakro 
cabbage, brasiko 
cabin, kajuto, kabano, 

cable, Ŝnurego 
cadet, kadeto 
cafe, restoracio, kafejo 
cage, kaĝo 
cake, kuko 
calculate, kalkuli 
caldron, kaldrono 
calendar, kalendaro 
calf, bovido, tibikarno 
caliber, kalibro 
calico, kalikoto 
call, voki 
callous, kala 
calm, kvieta, trankvila 
calumny, kalumnio 
camp, tendaro 
camphor, kamforo 
can, povas 
canal, kanalo 
canary, kanario 
candidate, kandidato 
candle, kandelo 
candy, kando 
cane, kano, bastono 
cannon, pafilego 
canon, kanono 
canopy, baldakeno 
canvas, kanvaso 
cap, ĉapo, kepo 
capable, kapabla 

capital, kapitalo, kapi- 
telo, granda litero 

capitol, kapitolo 

caprice, kaprico 

captain, ŝipestro, kap- 

carat, karato 

caravan, karavano 

carbuncle, karbunkolo 

card, karto 

cardboard, kartono 

care, zorgi 

caress, karesi 

carmine, karmino 

carnival, karnivalo 

caricature, karikaturi 

carp, karpo 

carpenter, ĉarpenti 

carpet, tapiŝo 

carriage, veturilo 

carrot, karoto 

carry, porti 

cartilage, kartilago 

cartridge, kartoĉo 

case, kazo, kesto, ingo 

cash, mono, kontanto 

cast, fandi 

castle, kastelo 

cat, kato 

catalogue, katalogo 

catarrh, kataro 

catch, kapti 

cathedral, katedralo 

Catholic, Katolika 

English-Esperanto Vocabulary 


cauliflower, florbrasiko 
cause, kaŭzo 
caution, averti 
cavalry, kavalerio 
cave, kaverno 
cease, ĉesi 
cedar, cedro 
cede, cedi 
ceiling, plafono 
celery, celerio 
cell, ĉelo 
cellar, kelo 
cement, cemento 
censor, cenzuri 
cent, cendo 
centime, centimo 
center, centro 
century, centjaro 
ceremony, ceremonio 
certain, certa 
certify, certigi, atesti 
chagrin, ĉagreno 
chain, ĉeno 
chair, seĝo 
chalice, kaliko 
chalk, kreto 
chamber, ĉambro 
chamois, ĉamo 
chamois-skin, Ŝamo 
chance, hazardo, ŝanco, 

change, ŝanĝi 
chapter, ĉapitro 
character, karaktero 
chariot, ĉaro 
charlatan, ĉarlatano 

charming, Ĉarma 
chaste, casta 
chatter, babili 
cheap, malkara 
cheat, trompi 
cheese, fromaĝo 
chemise, ĉemizo 
chemistry, ĥemio 
check, ĉeko 
cherry, ĉerizo 
chess, ŝakoj 
chest, kesto, brusto 
chestnut, kaŝtano 
chew, maĉi 
chief, ĉefa 
child, infano 
chimney, kamentubo 
chin, mentono 
china, porcelano 
Chinaman, ĥino 
chirp, ĉirpi, pepi 
chisel, ĉizi 
chocolate, ĉokolado 
choice^ elekto 
choir, ĥoro 
chop, haki 
Christ, Kristo 
Christmas, Kristnasko 
church, eklezio, preĝejo 
cider, cidro 
cigar, cigaro 
cigarette, cigaredo 
cinder, cindro 
cinnamon, cinamo 
cipher, cifero 
circle, rondo 


English-Esperanto Vocabulary 

circular, cirkulero 
circumstance, cirkon- 

circus, cirko 
cistern, cisterno 
cite, citi 

citizen, urbano, ano 
city, urbo 
civil, civila, ĝentila 
civilize, civilizi 
class, klaso 
claw, ungo, ungego 
clay, argilo 
clean, pura 
clear, klara 
clerk, komizo 
clever, lerta 
client, kliento 
climate, klimato 
climb, suprenrampi 
clink, tinti 
clip, tondi 
cloak, mantelo 
clock, horloĝo 
close, proksima 
close, fermi 
cloth, drapo, tuko 
clothe, vesti 
cloud, nubo 
clove, kariofilo 
club, bastonego, trefo, 

coal, karbo, ŝtonkarbo 
coast, marbordo, gliti 
coat, vesto 
cock, koko 

cocoa, kakao 

cocoanut, kokoso 

cod, gado 

codicil, kodicilo 

coddle, dorloti 

coffee, kafo 

coffer, kesto 

coffin, ĉerko 

coin, monero 

coke, koakso 

colic, koliko 

collar, kolumo 

collect, kolekti 

college, kolegio 

colonel, kolonelo 

colony, kolonio 

colossal, kolosa 

color, koloro 

column, kolono 

comb, kombi 

combat, batalo 

combine, kombini 

come, veni 

comedy, komedio 

comet, kometo 

comfort, komforto 

comic, komika 

comma, komo 

command, komandi, 

commander (of an or- 
der), komandoro 

commence, komenci 

commentary, komen- 

commerce, komerco 

E?2glish-Esperant o Vocabulary 


commission, komisio, 

committee, komitato 
common, komuna, vul- 

commune, komunumo 
compact, kompakta 
company, kompanio, 

roto, trupo, anaro, 

compare, kompari 
compass, kompaso, cir- 

compel, devigi 
complicate, kompliki 
compute, kalkuli 
comrade, kamarado 
conceal, kaŝi 
concede, cedi 
concern, koncerni 
concerning, pri 
concert, koncerto 
conclude, konkludi, fini 
concubine, kromvirino 
condemn, kondamni 
condition, kondiĉo,stato 
condole, kondolenci 
conduct, konduki 
conduct, konduto 
cone, konuso 
confederate, konfederi 
conference, konferenco 
confess, konfesi 
confide, konfidi 
conform, konformi 
confuse, konfuzi 

congress, kongreso 
conjecture, konjekti 
conscience, konscienco 
consent, konsento 
consequently, sekve 
console, konsoli 
constitution, konstitu- 

construct, konstrui 
consul, konsulo 
consume, konsumi 
consumption, ftizo 
contact, kontakto 
contain, enhavi 
contempt, malestimo 
contend, batali, disputi 
content, kontenta 
contest, disputi, konkuri 
continent, kontinento 
continue, daŭri, daŭrigi 
contour, konturo 
contraband, kontraban- 

contract, kontrakto 
contradict, kontraŭdiri 
contrary, kontraŭa 
contrast, kontrasti 
contrive, elpensi 
control, kontroli 
contusion, kontuzo 
convene, kunveni 
convenient, konvena 
conventional, kutima 
converge, konverĝi 
conversation, konver- 



English-Esperanto Vocabulary 

convert, konverti 
convince, konkinki 
cook, kuiri 
copper, kupro 
copy, kopii, ekzemplero 
coquet, koketi 
coral, koralo 
cork, korko, Ŝtopi 
corkscrew, korktirilo 
corn, maizo, kalo 
corner, angulo 
cornice, kornico 
corporal, korporalo, 

corpse, kadavro 
correct, korekta 
correspond, korespondi 
corset, korseto 
Cossack, kozako 
cost, kosto 
costly, multekosta 
cotton, kotuno 
cough, tusi 
counsel, konsili, advo- 

count, kalkuli, grafo 
countenance, vizaĝo 
country, lando,kamparo 
couple, paro 
courage, kuraĝo 
courier, kuriero 
course, kurso 
court, juĝejo, juĝistaro, 

courteous, ĝentila 
cousin, kuzo, kuzino 

cover, kovri, tegi 
cowl, kapuĉo 
coxcomb, dando 
coy, rezerva 
crab, kankro 
crack, fendi, kraki 
cradle, lulilo 
crafty, ruza 
crane, gruo, ŝarĝlevilo 
crape, krepo 
crater, kratero 
cravat, kravato 
crawl, rampi 
crayon, krajono 
crazy, freneza 
cream, kremo 
create, krei 
credit, kredito 
creditor, kreditoro 
credulity, kredemo 
creed, kredo 
creep, rampi 
Creole, kreolo 
crest, tufo 
crevice, fendo 
crew, Ŝipanaro 
cricket, grilo 
crime, krimo 
crippled, kripla 
crisis, krizo 
criticise, kritiki 
crocodile, krokodilo 
crop, rikolto, kropo 
cross, kruco, malafabla 
crystal, kristalo 
cube, kubo 

English-Esperanto Vocabulary 


cuckoo, kukolo 
cucumber, kukumo 
cuff, manumo 
cuirass, kiraso 
culpable, kulpa 
cunning, ruza 
cup, taso 
cupola, kupolo 
cure, kuraci, resanigi 
curl, buklo 
currant, ribo 

current, fluo 
curtain, kurteno 
cushion, kuseno 
custom, kutimo 
cut, tranĉi 
cutlet, kotleto 
cyclone, ciklono 
cylinder, cilindro 
cymbal, cimbalo 
cypress, cipreso 
czar, caro 

daffodil, narciso 
dagger, ponardo 
dahlia, dalio 
daily, ĉiutaga 
dainty, frandaĵo 
daisy, lekanteto 
dam, digo 
damage, difekti 
damask, damasko 
dame, sinjorino 
damn, kondamni 
dance, danci 
dandy, dando 
Dane, dano 
dandelion, leontodo 
danger, danĝero 
dangle, pendeti 
dare, kuraĝi 
dark, malluma 

darken, mallumigi 
darling, karuleto 
darn, fliki 
dart, sego, pikilo 
date, dato, datumi, 

dative, dativo 
daub, fuŝi 
daughter, filino 
daunt, timigi 
dauntless, sentima 
dawn, tagiĝo 
day, tago 
daybook, taglibro 
daydream, revo 
dazzle, blindigi 
deacon, diakono 
dead, senviva, mortinta 
deaf, surda 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

deal, komerci, disdoni 
dear, kara, multekosta 
death, morto 
debate, debato 
debauch, diboĉo 
debit, debito 
debt, ŝuldo 
decanter, karafo 
decaying, kaduka 
deceive, trompi 
December, Decembro 
decent, deca 
decide, decidi 
decipher, deĉifri 
deck, ferdeko 
declaim, deklami 
declaration, deklaracio 
declare, aserti 
declivity, deklivo 
decorate, ornami 
deep, profunda 
deer, cervo 
defend, defendi 
deficiency, deficito 
define, definite 
delay, prokrasti 
delegate, delegito 
delegation, delegacio 
delicate, delikata 
deliver, liveri 
demand, postuli 
democrat, demokrato 
demon, demono 
denounce, denunci 
dense, densa 
deny, nei 

depend, dependi 
depute, deputi 
describe, priskribi 
desert, forlasi 
desert, dezerto 
deserve, meriti 
design, desegno 
desire, deziri 
desk, skribtablo 
dessert, deserto 
destine, destini 
destroy, detrui 
detail, detalo 
deter, malhelpi 
devil, diablo 
devoted, sindona 
dew, roso 
diagonal, diagonala 
diagram, diagramo 
dialect, dialekto 
dialogue, dialogo 
diameter, diametro 
diamond, diamanto 
dictate, dikti 
dictionary, vortaro 
differ, diferenci 
dig, fosi 
digest, digesti 
diligent, diligenta 
dine, tagmanĝi, vesper - 

dip, trempi 
diphthong, diftongo 
diploma, diplomo 
diplomacy, diplomatio 
direct, direkti, ordoni 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


direct, rekta 
director, direktoro 
dirt, koto 
disc, disko 
discount, diskonto 
discover, eltrovi 
discreet, diskreta 
discuss, diskuti 
disgust, naŭzi 
dish, plado 
disinfect, dezinfekti 
dispatch, depeŝo 
dispel, forpeli 
dispute, disputi 
dissolve, solvi 
distinct, klara 
distinguish, distingi 
disturbance, tumulto 
diverse, diversa 
divide, dividi 
divorce, eksedziĝo 
do, fari 
doctor, doktoro, kura- 

document, dokumento 
dog, hundo 
dogma, dogmo 
doll, pupo 
dollar, dolaro 
door, pordo 
dose, dozo 
dot, punkto 
doubt, dubi 
douche, duŝo 
dove, kolombo 
down, lanugo 

drag, treni 
dragon, drako 
dragoon, dragono 
drama, dramo 
draw, tiri 
drawers, kalsono 
dray, Ŝarĝveturilo 
dream, sonĝi 
dreĝs, feĉo 
dress, vesti 
drill, bori 
drink, trinki 
drone, burdo 
drop, guto, fali 
drown, droni 
drug, drogo 
drum, tamburo 
dry, seka 
duck, anaso 
dude, dando 
duel, duelo 
duet, dueto 
duke, duko 
dull, malakra 
dung, sterko 
durable, fortika 
duration, daŭro 
during, dum 
dust, polvo 
duty, devo, imposto 
dyke, digo 
dynamics, dinamiko 
dynamite, dinamito 
dynasty, dinastio 
dysentery, disenterio 
dyspepsia, dispepsio 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

each, Ĉiu 
eager, avida 
eagle, agio 
ear, orelo, spiko 
earl, grafo 
early, frua, frue 
earth, tero 

earthenware, fajenco 
earthquake, tertremo 
east, oriento 
Easter, Pasko 
easy, facila 
eat, manĝi 
ebony, ebono 
echo, eĥo 
economize, Ŝpari 
ecstacy, ekstazo 
eczema, ekzemo 
Edeno, Eden 
edge, rando 
edict, edikto 
edify, edifi 
edit, redakti 
edition, eldono 
educate, eduki 
eel, angilo 
effect, efiki 
effort, peno, atenco 
egg, ovo 

Egyptian, egipto 
eight, ok 
either, aŭ 
elastic, elasta 
elbow, kubuto 

elect, elekti 
ell, ulno 
elm, ulmo 
else, alie 

embarass, embarasi 
emblem, emblemo 
embrace, ĉirkaŭpremi 
embroider, brodi 
emerald, smeraldo 
eminent, eminenta 
empire, imperio 
employ, dungi, uzi 
employment, ofico 
empty, malplena, vak- 

enamel, emajlo 
enclose, enmeti,enfermi 
encore, bis 
encounter, renkonti 
encroach, trudi 
end, fino 
endow, doti 
enemy, malamiko 
energy, energio 
engine, maŝino 
Englishman, anglo 
enjoy, ĝui 

enlist, varbi, aliĝi al 
enough, sufiĉe 
enterprise, entrepreno 
entice, logi 
entire, tuta 
entreat, petegi 

English-Esperanto Vocabulary 


envelop, envolvi 
envelope, koverto 
envy, envii 
epidemic, epidemio 
epilepsy, epilepsio 
episode, epizodo 
epitaph, epitafo 
epithet, epiteto 
epoch, epoko 
equal, egala 
equation, ekvacio 
equator, ekvatoro 
err, erari 
errand, komisio 
erysipelas, erizipelo 
escort, eskorto 
especial, speciala 
essence, esenco, oleo 
establish, fondi, kon- 

stati, starigi 
esteem, estimi 
eternal, eterna 
ether, etero 
ethics, etiko 
etiquette, etiketo 
euphonious, belsona 
Europe, Eŭropo 
even, eĈ, ebena 
event, okazo 
ever, ajn, iam 
every, ĉiu, ĉia 
everybody, ĉiu 
everybody's, ĉies 
everything, ĉio 
everywhere, ĉie 
evident, evidenta 

evolution, evolucio 
exact, preciza, ĝusta 
examine, ekzameni 
example, ekzemplo 
except, escepte 
excessive, troa 
exchange, interŝanĝo 
exchange, borso 
excite, eksciti 
exclusive, eksklusiva 
excursion, ekskurso 
execute, ekzekuti 
exercise, ekzerco 
exhibition, ekspozicio 
exist, ekzisti 
expand, etendi 
expect, atendi 
expedite, ekspedi 
expel, elpeli 
expense, elspezo 
experience, sperto 
expert, lerta 
explain, klarigi 
explode, eksplodi 
explore, esplori 
express, esprimi, sendi 

extend, etendi 
external, ekstera 
extinguish, estingi 
extra, ekstra 
extreme, ekstrema 
eye, okulo 
eyebrow, brovo 
eyeglasses, okulvitroj 
eyelid, palpebro 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

fable, fablo 
facilitate, faciligi 
facsimile, faksimilo 
fact, fakto 
factory, fabriko 
fade, velki 

faint, sveni 
fair, foiro, justa 
faith, fido 
fairy, feino 
fall, fali 

falsa, falsa, malvera 
fame, famo 
family, familio 
familiar, familiara 
fan, ventumi 
fanatical, fanatika 
fantasy, fantazio 
far, malproksima 
farewell, adiaŭ 
farm, farmi 
fashion, maniero, modo, 

fast, rapida 
fat, grasa 
fatal, fatala 
fate, sorto 
father, patro 
fathom, sondi 
faucet, krano 
fault, kulpo, eraro 
favor, favoro 
fear, timo 

feast, festeni 
feather, plumo 
February, Februaro 
fee, pago 
feed, nutri 
feel, palpi, senti 
felt, felto 
female, ino 
feminism, feminismo 
fence, skermi, barilo 
fennel, fenkolo 
ferment, fermenti 
fern, filiko 
ferry, pramo 
fervor, fervoro 
festoon, festono 
festival, festo 
fetter, kateno 
fever, febro 
few, iom, nemultaj, 

malmultaj, kelkaj 
fiance, fianĉo 
fiber, fibro 
fictitious, fiktiva 
fie! fil 
field, kampo 
fig, figo 
fight, batali 
figure, cifero 
file, fajli 
fill, plenigi 
final, fina 
finance, financo 
find, trovi 

English-Esperanto Vocabulary 


fine» delikata, bela, mal- 

finger, fingro 
finish, fini 
fir, abio 
fire, fajro 

fire-place, kameno 
firm, firmo, fortika 
first, unua 
fiscal, fiska 
fish, fiŝo, fiŝkapti 
fist, pugno 
fit, taŭga 
five, kvin 
fixed, fiksa 
flag, flago, standardo 
flake, floko 
flame, flamo 
flank, flanko 
flannel, flanelo 
flap, klapo 
flat, plata 
flatter, flati 
flea, pulo 

flesh, karno, viando 
flexible, fleksebla 
flint, siliko 
flirt, koketi, flirti 
flour, faruno 
flow, flui 
flower, floro 
flue, kamentubo 
fluid, flua 
flute, fluto 
fly, flugi, muŜo 
foam, ŝaŭmo 

focus, fokuso 

fodder, furaĝo 

fog, nebulo 

fold, faldi 

follow, sekvi 

fond, ama 

fondle, dorloti 

foot, piedo, futo 

foot, on, piedire 

fop, dando 

for, pro, por, Car 

forbear, toleri 

force, devigi 

forehead, frunto 

foreign, fremda, ali- 

foresee, antaŭvidi 
forge, forĝi, falsi 
forest, arbaro 
forget, forgesi 
forget-me-not, miozoto 
forgive, pardoni 
fork, forko 
form, formo 
formal, ceremonia 
formation, formacio 
formula, formulo 
forsake, forlasi 
fortify, fortikigi 
forward, antaŭen 
forward, ekspedi, sen- 

di, antaŭenigi 
foster, nutri 
foul, malpura 
found, fondi 
foundation, fondaĵo 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

fountain, fontano 
four, kvar 
fowl, kortbirdo 
fox, vulpo 
fraction, frakcio 
fragment, fragmento 
frame, kadro 
franc, franko 
France, Francujo 
frank, sincera 
fraternal, frata 
fraud, trompo 
freckle, lentugo 
free, libera, senpaga 
freemason, framasono 
freight, ŝarĝo 
Frenchman, franco 
frequent, ofta 
fresco, fresko 
fresh, freŝa 

friend, amiko 
fringe, franĝo 
frivolous, frivola 
friz, frizi 
frog, rano 
frost, frosto 
froth, Ŝaŭmo 
fruit, frukto 
fry, friti 
fulfill, plenumi 
full, plena 
funnel, funelo 
fur, felo 
furious, furioza 
furnace, forno 
furnish, provizi 
furniture, meblaro 
further, plie, plu 
futile, vanta 
future, estonta 

gain, gajm 
gaiter, gamaŝo 
gall, galo 
gallery, galerio 
gallop, galopi 
game, ludo, ĉasaĵo 
gamut, gamo 
gang, bando 
gangrene, gangreno 
garden, ĝardeno 
gargle, gargari 
garland, girlando 

garlic, ajlo 
garment, vesto 
garrison, garnizono 
garter, Ŝtrumpligilo 
gas, gaso 
gather, kolekti 
gauge, mezuri 
gauze, gazo 
gay, gaja 
gazette, gazeto 
gelatine, gelateno 
gendarme, ĝendarmo 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


gender, sekso 
genealogy, genealogio 
general, ĝenerala, gen- 
gipsy, cigano 
grave, tombo, grava 
gravy, viandsuko 
gray, griza 
grease, graso 
great, granda 
green, verda 
Greek, greko 
grimace, grimaco 
grind, pisti, mueli 
groan, ĝemi 
groin, ingveno 
grotesque, groteska 
ground, tero 

group, grupo 
grouse, tetro 
grow, kreski 
grumble, grumbli 
grunt, grunti 
guarantee, garantio 
guard, gardi, gvardio 
guess, diveni 
guest, gasto 
guide, gvidi 
guillotine, gilotino 
guilt, kulpo 
guitar, gitaro 
gulf, golfo 
gum, gumo 
gun, pafilo 
gunpowder, pulvo 
gypsum, gipso 


ha ! ha ! 
habit, kutimo 
hack, haki 
hail, hajli 
hair, haro 
half, duono 
halt, halti, haltigi 
ham, Ŝinko 
hammer, martelo 
hand, mano 
hang, pendi, pendigi 
happiness, feliĉo 
harbor, haveno 
hard, malmola 

hardly, apenaŭ 
hare, leporo 
harem, haremo 
harmony, harmonio 
harness, jungi 
harp, harpo 
harpoon, harpuno 
harrow, erpi 
harsh, malmilda, severa 
harvest, rikolto 
hasten, rapidi, rapidigi 
hat, ĉapelo 
hatchet, hakilo 
hate, malami 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

have, havi 

haven, haveno 

hawk, akcipitro, kol- 

hay, fojno 
hazard, hazardo 
hazel-nut, avelo 
he, li 

head, kapo, estro 
heal, resanigi, kuraci 
heap, amaso, staplo 
hear, audi 
heart, koro, kero 
heat, hejti, varmigi 
heaven, ĉielo 
heavy, peza 
Hebrew, hebreo 
hedgehog, erinaco 
heed, atenti 
heel, kalkano, kalkan- 

heir, heredanto 
heliotrope, heliotropo 
hell, infero 
helm, direktilo 
help, helpi 
hem, borderi 
hemisphere, duonsfero 
hemp, kanabo 
hen, kokino 
hence, de nun, de tio 
her, Ŝin, Sia, si, sia 
herald, heroldo 
herb, herbo 
herd, paŝti, brutaro 
here, tie ĉi, Ĉi tie 

heresy, herezo 
hermit, ermit 
hero, heroo 
herring, haringo 
hesitate, ŝanceliĝi 
hiccough, singulti 
hide, kaŝi 

hierarchy, hierarĥio 
hieroglyphic, hieroglifo 
high, alta 
him, li, lin 
himself, sin, si mem 
Hindoo, hindo 
hinge, ĉarniro 
hip, kokso 

hippodrome, hipodromo 
hippopotamus, hipopo- 

hire, dungi 
his, lia, sia 
hiss, sibli 
history, historio 
hit, frapi 
ho ! ho ! 

hoarfrost, prujno 
hoarse, raŭka 
hoe, sarki 
hog, porko 
hold, teni, holdo 
hole, truo 
holiday, festo 
holly, ilekso 
holy, sankta 
home, hejmo 
homeopathy, homeo- 

English - Esfiera nio Vocabulary 


honest, honesta 
honey, mielo 
honor, honoro 
hoof, hufo 
hook, hoko 
hope, esperi 
hops, lupolo 
horizon, horizonto 
horn, Korno 
horoscope, horoskopo 
horse, Ĉevalo 
host, mastro, multego 
hot, varmega 
hotel, hotelo 
hour, horo 
house, domo 
how, kiel 
however, tamen 
hue, nuanco 
hum, zumi 
human being, homo 
humane, humana 
humble, humila 

humerus, humero 
humor, humoro 
hump, ĝibo 
hunger, malsato 
hundred, cent 
hunt, ĉasi, serĉi 
hurrah ! hura I 
hurry, rapidi 
hurt, vundi, dolori, di- 

husband, edzo 
husk, ŝelo 
hyacinth, hiacinto 
hydrogen, hidrogeno 
hydrophobia, hidrofo- 

hyena, hieno 
hymn, himno 
hyperbole, hiperbolo 
hypokritical, hipokrita 
hypothesis, hipotezo 
hyssop, hisopo 
hysteria, histerio 

I, mi 

ice, glacio 
idea, ideo 
ideal, idealo 
identical, identa 
idiom, idiomo 
idol, idolo 
if, se 
ignorance, nescio 

illness, malsano 
illuminate, ilumini 
illusion, iluzio 
illustrate, ilustri 
image, figuro 
imagine, imagi 
imitate, imiti 
immediately, tuj 
immense, grandega 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

immigrate, enmigri 
imp, koboldo 
impair, difekti 
imperative, ordona 
imperial, imperia 
import, enporti 
impress, impresi 
in, en 
inch, colo 
incite, inciti 
incline, inklini, deklivo 
include, enhavi 
income, rento 
indefinite, nedifinita 
index, tabelo 
indicate, montri 
indicative, indikative 
indifferent, indiferenta 
indignant, indigna 
individual, individuo 
indorse, ĝiri 
industrious, diligenta 
industry, an, industrio 
inertia, inercio 
infant, infano, infaneto 
infect, infekti 
infernal, infera 
infinite, senlima 
influence, influi 
influenza, gripo 
inform, informi, sciigi 
infuse, infuzi 
inhabit, loĝi 
inhale, enspiri 
initiate, iniciati 
injury, vundo, difekto 

inoculate, inokuli 

inquire, demandi 

inquisitive, sciama 

insane, freneza 

insect, insekto 

inside, interne 

insidious, insida 

insist, insisti 

inspiri, inspiri 

instance, instanco 

instead of, anstataŭ 

instinct, instinkto 

institute, fondi, insti- 

institution, institucio 

instruct, instrui 

instrument, instrumen- 
to, ilo 

insult, insulti 

intelligent, inteligenta 

intend, intend 

intense, forta, ega 

inter, enterigi 

interest, intereso, pro- 

interior, interna 

interpret, traduki 

interrupt, interrompi 

intrigue, intrigi 

intrude, trudi 

invalid, invalido, mal- 

invent, elpensi 

inventory, inventaro 

investigate, esplori 

invite, inviti 

English-Esperanto Vocabulary 


invoice, fakturo 
iodine, jodo 
Ireland, Irlando 
iron, fero, gladi 
irony, ironio 
is, estas 
island, insulo 

isolate, izoii 
issue, eldoni 
isthmus, istmo 
it, ĝi 

Italian, Italo 
itch, juki 
ivy, hedero 

jackass, azenviro 
jackal, ŝakalo 
jacket, jako, ĵako,ĵaketo 
jail, karcero 
jam, fruktaĵo 
January, Januaro 
Japanese, japano 
jay, garolo 
jessamine, jasmeno 
Jesus, Jesuo 
Jew, judo 
jingle, tinti 
job, tasko 
join, kunigi 

joint, artiko 
joke, Ŝerci 
journal, ĵurnalo 
joy, ĝojo, joy 
jubilee, jubileo 
judge, juĝi 
juĝ, kruĉo 
juggle, ĵongli 
juice, suko 
July, Julio 
June, Junio 
just, justa, ĝuste 
just now, ĵus 
justice, justeco 


kangaroo, didelfo 
keel, kilo 
key, Ŝlosilo 
kick, piedfrapo 
kidney, reno 
kill, mortigi, buĉi 
kilogram, kilogramo 
kiloliter, kilolitro 

kilometer, kilometro 
kind, speco, bonkora 
king, reĝo 
kiss, kisi 
kitchen, kuirejo 
knapsack, tornistro 
knead, knedi 
knee, genuo 


English-Esperanto Vocabulary 

knife, tranĉilo 
knight, kavaliro 
knit, triki 
knout, knuto 

know, scii 
knot, banto, tubero 
kopeck, kopeko 
Koran, korano 

labor, labori 

lace, laĉi, pasamento, 

lack, manko 
lackey, lakeo 
laconic, lakona 
lad, knabo 
lady, sinjorino 
lake, lago 
lamb, Ŝafido 
lame, lama 
lamp, lampo 
lance, lanco 
land, tero, lando 
landlord, hotelmastro, 

landscape, pejzaĝo 
language, lingvo 
lantern, lanterno 
larceny, Ŝtelo 
lard, lardo 
large, granda 
lark, alaŭdo 
larva, larvo 
larynx, laringo 
last, lasta, daŭri 
late, malfrua 
lath, lato 

lathe, tornilo 
Latin, latina 
laugh, ridi 
laundress, lavistino 
laurel, laŭro 
law, leĝo 
lawsuit, proceso 
lay, meti 
layer, tavolo 
lead, konduki 
lead, plumbo 
leaf, folio 

lean, klini, malgrasa 
leap, salti 
learn, lerni, sciiĝi 
legitimate, legitima 
lemon, citrono 
lemonade, limonado 
lend, prunti, prunte doni 
leopard, leopardo 
leprosy, lepro 
less, malpli 
lesson, leciono 
lethargy, letargio 
letter, letero, litero 
lettuce, latuko 
level, nivelo, ebena 
liable, responda 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


liberal, malavara, lib- 
liberate, liberigi 
library, biblioteko 
libretto, libreto 
license, permeso 
lick, leki 

lie, kuŝi, mensogi 
lieutenant, leŭtenanto 
life, vivo 
lift, levi 

light, lumo, malpeza 
lightning, fulmo 
lighthouse, lumturo 
like, Ŝati 
like, simila, tiel 
likely, eble, verŝajne 
lilac, siringo 
lily, lilio 

limb, membro, branĉo 
lime, kalko 
limit, iimo 
limp, lami 
line, linio 
linen, tolo, tolaĵo 
lion, leono 
lip, lipo 
liquid, fluida 
liquidate, likvidi 
liquor, likvoro 
liquorice, glicirizo 
list, registro 
listen, aŭskulti 
literature, literaturo 
lithograph, litografi 
liter, litro 

little, malgranda, eta, 

malmulte, iom 
liturgy, liturgio 
live, vivi, loĝi 
liver, hepato 
lizard, lacerto 
lo ! jen ! 

load, ŝarĝi, ŝargi 
loaf, bulkego 
loan, prunto 
lobster, omaro 
locality, loko 
lock, Ŝlosi, seruro, buk- 

lo, kluzo 
lockjaw, tetano 
locomotive, lokomotivo 
log, Ŝtipo 
logic, logiko 
loins, lumbo 
lone, sola 
long, longa 
look, rigardi, serĉi 
looking-glass, spegulo 
loom, teksilo 
loosen, ellasi 
Lord, the, la Sinjoro 
lose, perdi, malgajni 
lot, sorto, kvanto 
lots, cast, loti 
lottery, loterio 
loud, laŭta 
louse, pediko 
love, ami 

low, malalta, mallaŭta 
lower, mallevi 
lowly, humila 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

loyal, fidela 

luck, ŝanco, bonŝanco 

lull, Lull 

lung, pulmo 

lute, liuto 
Lutheran, luterano 
luxury, lukso 
lyre, liro 


macadam, makadamo 
macaroni, makaroni 
machine, maŝino 
madam, sinjorino 
magazine, revuo, gazeto 
magic, magio 
magnet, magneto 
mahogany, mahogono 
mail, poŝto 
maize, maizo 
majestic, majesta 
major, majoro 
majority, plimulto 
make, fari 
male, viro 
malicious, malica 
man, homo, viro 
manage, administri 
mania, manio 
manifesto, manifesto 
manifold, multenombra 
manner, maniero 
manufacture, fabriki 
manure, sterko 
many, multe, multaj, 

marble, marmoro 
March, Marto 

march, marŝi 
margin, marĝeno 
marguerite, lekanto 
marine, mara 
mark, signo, stampo, 

marquis, markezo 
marriage, edzeco,edziĝo 
marsh, marĉo 
marshal, marŝalo 
martyr, martiro 
mask, masko 
mast, masto 
master, majstro 
masticate, maĉi 
mat, mato 
match, alumeto 
material, materialo 
matter, materio, puso 
mattress, matraco 
mature, matura 
maxim, maksimo 
maximum, maksimumo 
May, Majo 
mayor, urbestro 
mazurka, mazurko 
me, min, mi 
meal, faruno, mango 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


mean, meza, signifi 
measles, morbilo 
measure, mezuri 
meat, viando 
medal, medalo 
medicine kuracilo, 

meditate, mediti 
medium, meza, medi- 

meet, renkonti 
melancholy, melanko- 

melody, meiodio 
melon, melono 
melt, fluidiĝi, degeli 
memory, memoro 
menace, minaci 
mend, fliki 
mention, citi 
mercury, hidrargo 
mere, nura 
meridian, meridiano 
merit, meriti 
mesh, maŝo 
message, depeŝo 
Messiah, Mesio 
metal, metalo 
meteor, meteoro 
method, metodo 
meter, metro, mezurilo 
microbe, mikrobo 
middle, meza 
mien, mieno 
might, povo 
migrate, migri 

mild, milda 
milk, lakto, melki 
mill, muelilo 
millet, milio 
million, miiiono 
mind, animo, spirito, 

obei, atenti, zorgi 
mine, mia, mian 
mine, mino 
mineral, mineralo 
minister, pastro, min- 

mint, mento 
minute, minuto, noto 
mirror, spegulo 
miserly, avara 
misery, mizero 
misprint, preseraro 
miss, fraiilino 
mission, misio 
Mister, Sinjoro 
mix, miksi 
moan, ĝemi 
mock, moki 
mode, modo 
model, modelo 
moderate, modera 
modern, moderna 
modest, modesta 
modulate, moduli 
Mohammedan, maho- 

moment, momenta 
monarch, monarĥo 
Monday, lundo 
money, money 


English-Esperanto Vocabulary 

money-order, mandato 
mongrel, hibrida 
monkey, simio 
monograph, monografo 
monogram, monogramo 
monologue, monologo 
monomania, monoma- 

monopoly, monopolo 
monster, monstro 
month, monato 
monument, monumento 
mood, humoro, modo 
moon, luno 
morala, morala 
morals, moro, etiko 
more, pli multe, pli,plu 
more, the, ju pli....des 

morning, mateno 
mortgage, hipoteko 
mosiac, mozaiko 
mosquito, moskito 
moss, musko 
most, plej, plej multe 
moth, tineo 
mother, patrino 
motion, movo 
motive, motivo 
motto, moto 
mouldy, Ŝima 
mountain, monto 
mouse, muso 
moustache, lipharoj 
mouth, buŝo 
move, movi 

mow, falĉi 

much, multe, multo 

mud, koto, Ŝlimo 

muff, mufo 

mulberry, moruso 

mule, mulo 

multiply, multiĝi, mul- 

mummy, mumo 
municipal, urba 
murder, mortigi 
murmur, murmuri 
muscle, muskolo 
muse, muzo, revi 
museum, muzeo 
mushroom, fungo 
music, muziko 
musket, muskedo 
muslin, muslino 
must, devas, devegas 
mustard, mustardo 
musty, Ŝima 
mute, muta, mutulo 
mutiny, ribelo 
mutter, murmuri 
mutton, ŝafaĵo 
mutual, reciproka 
muzzle, buŝumo 
my, mia, mian 
myriad, miriado 
myrrh, mirho 
myrtle, mirto 
mystery, mistero 
mystify, mistifiki 
myth, mito 
mythology, mitoiogio 

English-Esperanto Vocabulary 



nail, najli, ungo 
naive, naiva 
naked, nuda 
name, nomo 
nankeen, nankeno 
narrate, rakonti 
narrow, mallarĝa 
nasal, naza 
nation, nacio 
naturally, nature, kom- 

nature, naturo 
naught, nulo 
nausea, naŭzo 
nay, ne 

near, proksima, apud 
nearly, preskaŭ 
necessary, necesa 
neck, kolo 
necktie, kravato 
need, bezoni 
neither, nek 
nephew, nevo 
nerve, nervo 
neuter, neŭtra 
neutral, neŭtrala 
never, neniam 
nevertheless, tamen 
new, nova 
newspaper, ĵurnalo 
nice, agrabla 
nickel, nikelo 
nicotine, nikotino 

niece, nevino 

night, nokto 

nine, naii 

noble, nobla 

nobleman, nobelo 

nobody, neniu 

no, no 

noise, bruo 

nomad, nomado 

no minati ve , nominati vo 

none, neniom 

noon, tagmezo 

nor, nek 

normal, normala 

north, nordo 

nose, nazo 

nostril, naztruo 

not, ne 

notary, notario 

note, noti, rimarki, bilo 

nothing, nenio 

notice, rimarki, avizo 

notify, sciigi, avizi 

noun, substantivo 

novel, romano 

November, Novembro 

now, nun 

nowhere, nenie, 

nude, nuda 

number, nombro, nu- 

nurse, vairti, flegi 
nut, nukso 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

oak, kverko 

oar, remilo 

oasis, oazo 

oath, ĵuro 

oatmeal, grio 

obelisk, obelisko 

obey, obei 

object, celo, objekto 

object, kontraŭparoli 

obligation, devo 

oblige, devigi, fari kom- 

oblique, oblikva 
observe, rimarki 
obstinate, obstina 
obstruct, obstrukci 
obtain, ricevi, akiri 
obtrude, trudi 
occasion, okazo 
occupy, okupi 
occur, okazi 
ocean, oceano 
October, Oktobro 
ocular, okula 
odd, stranga, nepara 
ode, odo 
odor, odoro 
of, de, da 
offend, ofendi 
offer, proponi, prezenti 
office, ofico 
often, ofte 
oh ! ho ! 

oil, oleo 

old, malnova, antikva, 

olive, olivo 
omen, antaŭsigno 
omnibus, omnibuso 
omnipotent, ĉiopova 
on, sur 
once, unufoje 
one, unu 
onion, bulbo 
only, nur 
onward, antaŭen 
onyx, onikso 
opal, opalo 
open, malfermi 
opera, opero 
opera-glass, lorneto 
operate, operacii, funk- 

opinion, opinio 
opium, opio 
opponent, kontraŭulo 
opportune, ĝustatempa 
opportunity, okazo 
oppress, subpremi 
optics, optiko 
optimism, optimismo 
opulent, riĉa 
or, aŭ 

oracle, orakolo 
orange, oranĝo 
ordain, ordeni 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


order, mendi, ordoni 
organ, organo, orgeno 
orient, oriento 
ornament, ornami 
orphan, orfo 
orthodox, ortodoksa 
orthography, ortografio 
ostrich, struto 
other, alia 
ought, devas 
ounce, unco 
our, nia 
out, el, ekster 
outline, skizo, konturo 
outside, ekster, -a, -e 
oval, ovala 

ovary, ovujo 
oven, forno 
over, super 
overcome, venki 
overhead, supre 
overtake, atingi 
overthrow, renversi 
overture uverturo, pro- 

owe, ŝuldi 

owl, strigo,gufo,cikumo 
own, propra, posedi 
ox, bovo 

oxygen, oksigeno 
oxide, oksido 
oyster, ostro 

pack, paki 
package, pakaĵo 
pad, vati 
pagoda, pagodo 
pail, sitelo 
pain, doloro 
paint, pentri, kolori 
pair, paro 
palace, palaco 
palate, palato 
palatable, bongusta 
pale, pala, paliĝi 
palm, palmo, manplato 
paltry, triviala 
pamper, dorloti 

pamphlet, pamfleto 
panic, paniko 
pantaloons, pantalono 
panther, pantero 
pantomime, pantomimo 
papa, paĉjo 
paper, papero 
papyrus, papiruso 
parade, paradi 
paradise, paradizo 
paradox, paradokso 
parasol, sunombrelo 
parchment, pergameno 
pardon, pardoni 
pare, senŝeligi 


E?iglish-Esperdnto Vocabulary 

parents, gepatroj 
park, parko 

parliament, parlamento 
parody, parodio 
parrot, papago 
parsimony, parcimonio 
parsley, petroselo 
parsnip, pastinako 
parson, pastro 
part, parto, porcio 
participate, partopreni 
participle, participo 
partition, divido 
partridge, perdriko 
party, partio 
pass, pasi 

passenger, vojaĝanto 
passion, pasio, manio 
passive, pasiva 
passport, pasporto 
past, estinta 
paste, pasto 
pasteboard, kartono 
pastel, paŝtelo 
pastille, pastelo 
pastor, pastro 
pastoral, kampara, pas- 

patch, fliki 
patent, patento 
paternal, patra 
pathos, patoso 
patience, pacienco 
patriarch, patriarko 
patriot, patrioto 
patrol, patrolo 

pause, paŭzo 
pavement, pavimo 
pavilion, pavilion 
pay, pagi 
pea, pizo 
peace, paco 
peach, persiko 
peacock, pavo 
peak, pinto 
pear, piro 
pearl, perlo 
pedal, pedalo 
pedant, pedanto 
peddle, kolporti 
pedestal, piedestalo 
peel, Ŝelo 
pelt, felo 
pen, plumo 
penalty, puno 
penchant, inklino, emo 
pendulum, pendolo 
penetrate, penetri 
penitent, penta 
penny, penco 
pension, pensio 
penurious, avara 
peony, peonio 
people, popoli, homoj 
pepper, pipro 
percentage, procento 
perch, perko 
perfect, perfekta 
perform, fari, plenumi 
perfume, parfumo 
perhaps, eble 
peril, danĝerego 

English-Esperanto Vocabulary 


period, periodo, punkto 
perish, perei 
perjury, ĵurrompo 
permit, permesi 
perpetual, ĉiama, eterna 
persevere, persisti 
person, persono 
perspire, ŝviti 
perverse, kontraŭa 
pest, pesto 
pestle, pistilo 
pet, dorloti 
petition, petskribo 
petroleum, petrolo 
phantom, fantomo 
pharmacy, farmacio 
pharynx, faringo 
phase, fazo 
pheasant, fazano 
phenomenon, f enomeno 
philanthropist, filan- 

philately, filatelo 
philosopher, filozofo 
philosophy, filozofio 
phlegm, flegrao 
phoenix, fenikso 
phonetic, fonetika 
phonograph, fonografo 
phosphorus, fosforo 
photograph, fotografi 
piano, fortepiano 
picture, pentraĵo, foto- 

pie, pasteĉo 
piece, peco 

pig, porko 

pigeon, kolombo 

pigmy, pigmeo 

pile, staplo, amaso 

pilgrim, pilgrimanto 

pill, pilolo 

pillar, kolono 

pillow, kapkuseno 

pilot, piloto, gvidanto 

pimple, akno 

pin, pinglo 

pinch, pinĉi 

pine, pino, konifero 

pineapple, ananaso 

pinnacle, pinto 

pioneer, pioniro 

pious, pia 

pirate, pirato 

pistol, pistolo 

pit, partero, fosaĵo,kavo 

pitch, peĉo 

pity, kompato, domaĝo 

pivot, pivoto 

placard, afiŝo 

place, loko 

placid, kvieta 

plain, senornama,nebela 

plait, plekti 

plan, piano 

plane, raboti 

planet, planedo 

plank, tabulo 

plant, planti 

plate, telero 

platinum, plateno 

play, ludi, teatraĵo 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

pleasant, plaĉa 
plenty, sufiĉa 
pliable, fleksebla 
plot, konspiri, komploto 
plow, plugi 
pluck, kuraĝo 
plum, pruno 
plump, dika 
plural, multenombra 
plush, pluŝo 
pocket, poŝo 
pod, Ŝelo 
poem, poemo 
poet, poeto 
point, punkto 
poison, veneno 
pole, stango, poluso 
police, polico 
polish, poluri 
polite, ĝentila 
politics, politiko 
polyp, polipo 
pomade, pomado 
pomgranate, granato 
pompous, pompa 
pond, lageto 
poniard, ponardo 
poodle, pudelo 
pope, papo 
poplar, poplo 
popular, populara 
porcelain, porcelano 
porcupine, histriko 
pore, poro 
pork, porkaĵo 
porphyry, porfiro 

port, haveno 
portion, porcio, parto 
portrait, portreto 
positive, pozitiva 
possess, posedi 
possible, ebla 
post, fosto 
post card, poŝtkarto 
poster, afiŝo 
pot, poto 
potash, potaso 
potato, terpomo 
potency, potenco 
poultice, kataplasmo 
pound, pisti, bategi, 

funto, livro 
pour, verŝi, Ŝuti 
powder, pulvo, pulvoro, 

power, povo, potenco 
practical, praktika 
practice, kutimo 
prairie, herbejo, stepo 
praise, laŭdi 
prattle, babili 
pray, preĝi 
preach, prediki 
precentor, kantoro 
precise, preciza, ĝusta 
prefer, preferi 
prefix, prefikso 
pregnant, graveda 
prejudice, antaŭjuĝo 
premium, premio 
prepare, prepari 
preposition, prepozicio 

English-Esperanto Vocabulary 


presbyter, presbitero 
prescription, recepto 
present, donaci,prezenti 
preserve, konfiti 
preside, prezidi 
press, premilo, presilo 
pretext, preteksto 
pretty, beleta 
previous, antaŭa 
price, prezo 
prick, piki 
priest, pastro 
prince, princo 
principal, precipa 
principle, principo 
print, presi 
prison, karcero 
private, privata 
privilege, privilegio 
prize, premio 
probe, sondi, esplori 
problem, problemo 
proboscis, rostro 
proceed, procedi 
procession, procesio 
proclaim, proklami 
procure, akiri 
prodigal, malŝpara 
produce, produkti 
profess, profesi 
profession, profesio 
professor, profesoro 
proficient, kompetenta 
profile, profilo 
profit, pronto, gajno 
progeny, ido, idaro 

proletarian, proletario 
promenade, promeni 
promise, promesi 
promptly, tuj, ĝusta- 

pronoun, pronomo 
pronounce, elparoli 
proof, pruvo, provo 
propaganda, propagan- 

property, posedaĵo 
prophet, profeto 
proportion, proporcio 
proposal, propono 
pro rata, proporcie 
prose, prozo 
prosper, prosperi 
protect, protekti 
protest, protesti 
proud, fiera 
prove, pruvi 
proverbo, proverb 
provide, provizi 
province, provinco 
provision, provizaĵo 
provisional, provizora 
provoke, incite 
proximity, proksimeco 
prudent, prudenta 
prune, sekpruno 
Prussian, pruso 
psalm, psalmo 
public, publika 
publish, eldoni, publik- 

pull, tiri 


English-Esperanto Vocabulary 

pulley, rulbloko 

pulse, pulso 

pump, pumpi 

pumpkin, kukurbo 

punch (drink), punĉo 

punctuate, interpunkcii 

puncture, trapiki 

punish, puni 

pupil, lernanto, pupilo 

purchase, aĉeti 

pure, pura, virta, casta 

puritan, puritano 
purple, purpnro 
purpose, celo, intenco 
purse, monujo 
pus, puso 
push, puŝi 
putrid, putra 
putty, mastiko 
puzzle, enigmo 
pyramid, piramido 
python, pitono 

quack, anasbleki, car- 

quadrant, kvadranto 
quadrille, kvadrilo 
quail, koturno 
quality, kvalito, eco 
quantity, kvanto 
quartet, kvarteto 
queen, reĝino 

queer, stranga 
question, demando 
quick, rapida 
quiet, kvieta 
quill, plumo 
quit, lasi 
quite, tute 
quoin, kojno 
quote, citi 

rabbi, rabeno 
rabbit, kuniklo 
radius, radiuso 
raft, floso 
rag, ĉifono 
ragamuffin, bubo 
rail, relo 
railroad, fervojo 
rain, pluvo 
rainbow, ĉielarko 

rake, rasti 
rank, vico, rango 
rape, perforto 
rapid, rapida 
raspberry, frambo 
rat, rato 
rate, procento 
rather, pli volonte 
reach, atingi 
read, legi 

English- Esp era nto Vocal* ulary 


readily, volonte, facile 
ready, preta 
real, vera, reala 
really, vere, efektive 
ream, rismo 
reap, rikolti 
reason, rezoni 
rebate, rabato 
rebel, ribeli 
rebuke, riproĉi 
rebut, refuti 
receipt, kvitanci 
receipts, enspezoj 
receive, ricevi 
recently, antaŭnelonge 
recite, rakonti, deklami 
recognize, rekoni 
recommend, rekomendi 
recompense, rekom- 

recount, rakonti 
recruit, rekruto 
red, ruĝa 
reduce, malpliigi 
reed, kano 
reef, rifo 

reflect, rebrili, pripensi 
refuge, take, rifuĝi 
refund, repagi, redoni 
refuse, rifuzi 
refute, refuti 
regale, regali 
regard, rigardi 
regarding, pri 
region, regiono 
register, registri 

regret, bedaŭri 
regulation, regulo 
reject, rifuzi 
rejoice, ĝoji 
relate, rakonto 
relation, rilato, parenco 
religion, religio 
rely, konfidi 
remain, resti 
remark, rimarki 
remedy, rimedo 
remember, memori 
remote, malproksima 
render, redoni 
rent, lui 
repair, ripari 
repeat, ripeti 
report, raporti 
repose, ripozi 
represent, reprezenti 
reproach, riproĉi 
reproduce, reprodukti 
republic, respubliko 
reputation, reputacio 
request, peti 
require, postuli, bezoni 
rescue, savi 
research, esploro 
resemble, simili 
reserve, rezervi 
resist, kontraŭstari 
resolute, decida 
respect, respekti 
respond, respondi 
rest, paŭzo, resti, ripozi 
restaurant, restoracio 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

result, rezulti, rezultato 
retain, gardi, teni 
retina, retino 
retort, respondi 
return, redoni, reveni 
revenge, revenĝo 
review, revuo, parado 
revolt, ribelo 
revolution, revolucio 
reward, rekompenco 
rheumatism, reŭma- 

rhinoceros, rinocero 
rhubarb, rabarbo 
rhyme, rimo 
rythm, ritmo 
rib, ripo 
ribbon, rubando 
rice, rizo 
rich, riĉa 
ride, rajdi 
ridiculous, ridinda 
rifle, pafilo 
right, rajto, ĝuste, dek- 

stra, rekta, prava 
righteous, justa 
rim, rando 
ring, ringo, rondo 
ringlet, buklo 
rise, leviĝi 
risk, riski 
rival, konkuri 
river, rivero 
road, vojo 
roam, vagi 
roar, muĝi, blekegi 

rob, rabi 
robe, vesti, robo 
robust, fortika 
rock, roko 
rogue, fripono 
roll, ruli, ruliĝi, bulko 
roof, tegmento 
rook, frugilego 
room, ĉambro 
rooster, koko 
root, radiko 
rope, ŝnuro 
rose, rozo 
rosin, kolofono 
rot, putri 
rouble, rublo 
round, ronda 
rouse, veki, eksciti 
route, vojo 
row, remi, vico 
rub, froti 
ruby, rubeno 
rude, malĝentila 
ruin, ruino 
rule, regi, regulo 
run, kuri 
rum, rumo 
rural, kampara 
ruse, ruzo 
rush, kuregi 
rush, junko 
Russia, Ruslando 
Russian, ruso 
rust, rusti 

ruthless, senkompata 
rye, sekalo 

ILnglish- Esperanto Vocabulary 



sack, sako 
sacred, sankta 
sacrifice, oferi 
saddle, selo 
sagacious, sagaca 
sage, salvio, saĝa 
sail, velo, 
salad, salato 
salary, salajro 
sale, vendo 
saline, sala 
salmon, salmo 
salt, salo 
salute, saluti 
same, sama 
sample, specimeno 
sanction, sankcii 
sand, sablo 
sane, racia 
sanitary, higiena 
sarcasm, sarkasmo 
sardine, sardine 
Sardinian, sardo 
Satan, Satano 
satin, atlaso 
satire, satiro 
saturate, saturi 
Saturday, sabato 
sauce, saŭco 
sausage, kolbaso 
savage, sovaĝa . 
save, savi, ŝpari 
saw, segi 

say, diri 
scab, skabio 
scaffold, eŝafodo 
scald, brogi 
scale, skalo, skvamo 
scales, pesilo 
scandal, skandalo 
Scandinavian, skandi- 

scar, cikatro 
scarcely, apenaŭ 
scarf, skarpo 
scarlatina, skarlatino 
scarlet, skarlato 
scent, odoro 
scheme, projekto 
science, scienco 
scissors, tondilo 
score, dudeko 
Scotchman, skoto 
scoundrel, kanajlo 
scourge, skurĝi 
scrape, skrapi 
scratch, grati 
screen, ŝirmilo 
screw, Ŝraŭbo 
scrofula, skrofolo 
sculpture, skulpti 
sea, maro 
seal, sigeli, foko 
search, serĉi 
seashore, marbordo 
season, sezono 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

seat, seĝo, sidiĝi, sidigi 
second, sekundo, dua 
secret, sekreto 
secrete, kaŝi 
sect, sekto 
section, sekcio, parto 
secular, neeklezia 
sediment, feĉo 
seduce, delogi 
see, vidi 
seed, semo 
seek, serĉi 
seem, ŝajni 
seemly, deca 
seize, ekkapti 
select, elekti 
self, selves, mem 
sell, vendi 

semicolon, punktokomo 
seminary, seminario 
senate, senato 
senator, senatano 
send, sendi 
sense, sento, senco, 

racio, saĝeco 
sensible, saĝa 
sensual, voluptema 
sentence, juĝi, kon- 

damni, frazo 
separate, aparta 
September, Septembro 
seraph, serafo 
serenade, serenado 
serene, trankvila 
sergeant, serĝento 
series, serio 

serious, senoza 
sermon, prediko 
serpent, serpento 
servant, servisto 
servile, sklava 
seven, sep 
several, kelkaj, multaj, 

diver saj 
severe, severa 
sew, kudri 
sex, sekso 

shade, nuanco, ombrajo 
shaft, timono 
shake, Ŝanceli, skui, 

shame, honto 
shape, formo 
share, dividi, akcio, 

parto, porcio, parto- 

shark, Ŝarko 
sharp, akra 
shatter, frakasi 
shave, razi 
shawl, ŝalo 
she, Ŝi 
sheaf, garbo 
shear, tondi 
sheath, ingo 
sheep, Ŝafo 
shelf, breto 
shell, Ŝelo 
shepherd, paŝtisto 
shield, ŝildo, Sirmi 
shilling, ŝilingo 
shine, brili 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


shingle, Ŝindo 
ship, ŝipo 
shirt, ĉemizo 
shock, frapo 
shoe, ŝuo 
shoot, pan 
shore, marbordo 
should, devas 
shoulder, ŝultro 
shove, ŝovi 
shovel, Ŝoveli 
show, montri 
shrewd, sagaca 
shun, eviti 
shut, fermi 
sick, malsana 
side, flanko 
siege, sieĝo 
sift, kribri 

sign, signo, subskribi 
signal, signalo 
signify, signifi 
silence, silento 
silk, silko 
silver, arĝento 
similar, simila 
simple, simpla 
sin, peko 

since, car, de tiam 
sincere, sincera 
sinew, tendeno 
sing, kanti 
single, unuobla 
singular, stranga 
sir, sinjoro 
siren, sireno 

sister, fratino 
sit, sidi 

situation, situacio, ofico 
six, ses 

sixteen, dekses 
sixty, sesdek 
size, grandeco 
skate, gliti 
sketch, skizi 
skillful, lerta 
skin, haŭto 
skirt, jupo 
skull, kranio 
sky, ĉielo 
slander, kalumnii 
slang, slango 
slanting, oblikva 
slate, ardezo 
slave, sklavo 
sleek, glata 
sleep, dormi 
sleeve, maniko 
slender, maldika 
slide, gliti 
slipper, pantoflo 
slime, ŝlimo 
slit, fendo 
slope, deklivo 
smear, Ŝmiri 
smell, flari, odori 
smile, rideti 
smock, kitelo 
smoke, fumi 
smooth, glata, ebena 
smother, sufoki 
snail, limako 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

snake, serpento 

snare, kaptilo 

sneeze, terni 

snore, ronki 

snow, neĝo 

so, tiel, tia, tiom 

soap, sapo 

sober, sobra 

social, sociala, socia 

socialism, socialismo 

soda, sodo 

sofa, sofo 

soft, mola 

soil, tero 

solar, suna 

solder, luti 

soldier, soldato 

sole, sola 

solemn, solena 

solid, fortika, firma 

soliloquy, monologo 

solution, solvo 

solve, solvi 

some, kelkaj, kelke, 

iom, ia 
somebody, iu 
somebody's, ies 
somehow, iel 
something, io 
somewhat, iom 
somewhere, ie 
son, filo 
sonata, sonato 
song, kanto 
soon, baldaŭ 
soot, fulgo 

soprano, soprano 

sorrel, okzalo 

sort, speco 

soul, animo 

sound, sono, sondi 

soup, supo 

sour, acida 

source, fonto, deveno 

south, sudo 

sow, porkino 

sow, semi 

space, spaco, daŭro 

spade, fosilo 

spade (cards), piko 

spare, indulgi 

sparrow, pasero 

speak, paroli 

species, speco 

specter, fantomo 

speculate, spekulacii 

speed, rapideco 

spell, silabi 

spend, elspezo 

sphere, sfero 

sphinx, sfinkso 

spice, spico 

spider, araneo 

spill, disverŝi, disŝuti 

spin, ŝpini 

spine, spino 

spirit, spirito, animo, 

fantomo, energio, al- 

spiritualism, spiritual- 

spit, kraĉi 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


spite, malamo 

spite of, in, spite 

splash, ŝpruci, plaŭdi 

split, fendi 

spoil, difekti, malbon- 

igi, malboniĝi 
spoke, radio 
sponge, spongo 
spoon, kulero 
spoonful, plenkulero 
spring, salti, printempo, 

risorto, fonto 
spur, sprono 
spy, spiono 
squad, taĉmento 
squadron, skadro(mil.) 

eskadro (naval) 
square, kvadrato 
squint, strabi 
squirrel, sciuro 
stab, pikegi 
stable, ĉevalejo 
staff, stango, stabo 
stage, scenejo 
stain, makulo 
Gtair, ŝtuparo 
stake, paliso, fosto 
stall, budo, stalo 
stamin, stameno 
stammer, balbuti 
stamp, stampi, poŝt- 

stand, stari 
standard, standardo, 

star, stelo 

starboard, dekstro 
stato, etato, stato 
statue, statuo 
stature, kresko 
statute, regulo, leĝo 
stay, resti 

steak, steko, bifsteko 
steal, ŝteli 
steam, vaporo 
steel, Ŝtalo 
steep, kruta 
steer, direkti, bovo 
stenography, stenogra- 

step, Ŝtupo, paŝi 
step- (relation), duon- 
stereotype, stereotipo, 

sterile, senfrukta 
stick, bastono 
stick, glui 
stiff, rigida 
stifle, sufoki 
still, trankvila, kvieta, 

tamen, ankoraŭ, sen- 

mova, distililo 
stir, movi 
stitch, stebi 
stocking, Ŝtrumpo 
stoical, stoika 
stomach, stomako 
stone, ŝtono 
stool, skabelo 
stop, halti, haltigi, ĉesi 
store, provizo, maga- 

zeno, butiko 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

story, historio, fabelo, 

stout (fat), dika 
stove, forno 
straight, rekta 
strain, streĉi, kribri 
strait, markolo 
strand, fadeno 
strange, stranga 
stratum, tavolo 
straw, pajlo 
strawberry, frago 
streak, streko 
stream, rivero, rivereto 
street, strato 
street-car, tramveturilo 
stretch, streĉi 
strict, severa 
strike, frapi, striko 
string, ŝnureto 
stringent, severa, dra- 

strip, strio 
stripe, streko 
stroll, promeni 
structure, strukturo 
struggle, barakti 
strut, paradi 
strychnine, striknino 
student, studento 
studious, lernema 
study, lerni 
stuff, Ŝtofo, plenigi 
style, stilo, modo, faso- 

stylish, moda 

subject, temo, subjekto, 

regato, regnano 
submarine, submara 
subscribe, aboni, sub- 

skribi, monoferi 
subsequently, sekve, 

substitute, anstataŭi 
subterfuge, artifiko 
succeed, sukcesi 
such, tia 
sue, procesi 
suffix, sufikso 
suffrage, voĉdono 
sugar, sukero 
suit, konveni, kompleto 
sulphur, sulfuro 
sum, sumo 
summer, somero 
summit, supro 
sumptuous, luksa 
sun, suno 
Sunday, dimanĉo 
superfluous, superflua 
superior, supera 
superstition, superstiĉo 
supper, noktomanĝo, 

supplement, aldono 
supply, provizi 
support, subteni 
suppress, subpremi 
surprise, surprizi 
suspect, suspekti 
swallow, gluti, hirundo 
swarm, svarmi 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


swear, ĵuri, blasfemi 
sweat, ŝviti 
Swede, svedo 
sweep, balai 
sweet, dolĉa, malacida 
swell, Ŝveli 
swift, rapida 
swim, naĝi 
swing, svingi 
Swiss, sviso 
swoon, sveni 
sword, glavo 
syllable, silabo 

symbol, simbolo 
symmetry, simetrio 
sympathy, simpatio 
symphony, simfonio 
symptom, simptomo 
synagogue, sinagogo 
syndicate, sindikato 
synod, sinodo 
synonym, sinonimo 
syntax, sintakso 
synthesis, sintezo 
syrup, siropo 
system, sistemo 

table, tablo, tabelo 

tactics, taktiko 

taffeta, tafto 

tail, voŝto 

tailor, tajloro 

take, preni 

tale, rakonto, fabelo 

talent, talento 

talk, paroli 

tall, alta 

tallow, sebo 

Talmud, talmudo 

tan, tani 

tar, gudro 

tariff, tarifo, imposto 

tart, acida, torto 

taste, gusto, gustumi 

tattoo, tatui 

tax, taksi, imposto 
tea, teo 
teach, instrui 
tear, Ŝiri 
tear, larmo 
teat, mampinto 
tedious, teda 
telegram, telegramo 
telephone, telefoni 
telescope, teleskopo 
tell, rakonti, diri 
temperature, tempera- 

tempest, ventego 
temple, templo, tempio 
tempt, tenti 
ten, dek 
tenant, luanto 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

story, historic», fabelo, 

stout (fat), dika 
stove, forno 
straight, rekta 
strain, streĉi, kribri 
strait, markolo 
strand, fadeno 
strange, stranga 
stratum, tavolo 
straw, pajlo 
strawberry, frago 
streak, streko 
stream, rivero, rivereto 
street, strato 
street-car, tramveturilo 
stretch, streĉi 
strict, severa 
strike, frapi, striko 
string, ŝnureto 
stringent, severa, dra- 

strip, strio 
stripe, streko 
stroll, promeni 
structure, strukturo 
struggle, barakti 
strut, paradi 
strychnine, striknino 
student, studento 
studious, lernema 
study, lerni 
stuff, Ŝtofo, plenigi 
style, stilo, modo, faso- 

stylish, moda 

subject, temo, subjekto, 

regato, regnano 
submarine, submara 
subscribe, aboni, sub- 

skribi, monoferi 
subsequently, sekve, 

substitute, anstataŭi 
subterfuge, artifiko 
succeed, sukcesi 
such, tia 
sue, procesi 
suffix, sufikso 
suffrage, voĉdono 
sugar, sukero 
suit, konveni, kompleto 
sulphur, sulfuro 
sum, sumo 
summer, somero 
summit, supro 
sumptuous, luksa 
sun, suno 
Sunday, dimanĉo 
superfluous, superflua 
superior, supera 
superstition, superstiĉo 
supper, noktomanĝo, 

supplement, aldono 
supply, provizi 
support, subteni 
suppress, subpremi 
surprise, surprizi 
suspect, suspekti 
swallow, gluti, hirundo 
swarm, svarmi 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


swear, ĵuri, blasfemi 
sweat, Ŝviti 
Swede, svedo 
sweep, balai 
sweet, dolĉa, malacida 
swell, Ŝveli 
swift, rapida 
swim, naĝi 
swing, svingi 
Swiss, sviso 
swoon, sveni 
sword, glavo 
syllable, silabo 

symbol, simbolo 
symmetry, simetrio 
sympathy, simpatio 
symphony, simfonio 
symptom, simptomo 
synagogue, sinagogo 
syndicate, sindikato 
synod, sinodo 
synonym, sinonimo 
syntax, sintakso 
synthesis, sintezo 
syrup, siropo 
system, sistemo 

table, tablo, tabelo 

tactics, taktiko 

taffeta, tafto 

tail, voŝto 

tailor, tajloro 

take, preni 

tale, rakonto, fabelo 

talent, talento 

talk, paroli 

tall, alta 

tallow, sebo 

Talmud, talmudo 

tan, tani 

tar, gudro 

tariff, tarifo, imposto 

tart, acida, torto 

taste, gusto, gustumi 

tattoo, tatui 

tax, taksi, imposto 
tea, teo 
teach, instrui 
tear, Ŝiri 
tear, larmo 
teat, mampinto 
tedious, teda 
telegram, telegramo 
telephone, telefoni 
telescope, teleskopo 
tell, rakonti, diri 
temperature, tempera- 

tempest, ventego 
temple, templo, tempio 
tempt, tenti 
ten, dek 
tenant, luanto 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

tendon, tendeno 

tenor, tenoro 

tent, tendo 

term, templimo, termino 

terminate, fini 

terrace, teraso 

territory, teritorio 

terror, teruro 

test, provi 

testament, testamento 

testify, atesti 

tetanus, tetano 

text, teksto 

textile, teksa 

than, ol 

thank, danki 

that, tio, tiu, kiu, ke 

thaw, degeli 

the, la 

theater, teatro 

their, ilia, sia 

them, ilin, ili 

theme, temo 

then, tiam, do, poste 

theology, theologio 

theory, teorio 

there, tie 

therefore, tial 

thermometer, termo- 

they, ili 
thick, dika 
thief, Ŝlelisto 
thigh, femuro 
thing, io, aĵo 
think, pensi 

thirst, soifo 
this, tio ĉi, tiu Ĉi 
thistle, kardo 
thorn, dorno 
thou, ci, vi 
though, kvankam 
thrash, draŝi 
thread, fadeno 
threaten, minaco 
three, tri 
threshold, sojlo 
thrill, vibri, eksciti 
throat, gorĝo 
throne, trono 
throng, amaso 
through, tra 
throw, ĵeti 
thrush, turdo 
thumb, dika fingro 
thunder, tondri 
Thursday, ĵaŭdo 
thus, tiel, tiamaniere 
thy, ci, via 
thyme, timiano 
ticket, bileto 
tickle, tikli 
tide, tajdo 
tie, ligi, kravato 
tier, vico 
tiger, tigro 
till, ĝis 
time, tempo 
tin, stano 
tinkle, tinti 
tipple, drinki 
tipsy, ebria 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


tire, laciĝi, tedi, enui 
title, titolo 
to, al 
toad, bufo 
toast, toasto 
tobacco, tabako 
today, hodiaŭ 
toe, piedfingro 
tolerate, toleri 
tomato, tomato 
tomb, tombo 
tomorrow, morgaŭ 
tone, tono 
tongue, lango 
too, tro 
tool, ilo 
tooth, dento 
top, supro, pinto 
topaz, topazo 
topic, temo 
torch, torĉo 
torment, turmenti 
torpedo, torpedo 
torrent, torento 
torrid, varmega 
tortoise, testudo 
toss, ĵeti 
total, tuto 
totter, Ŝanceli 
touch, tuŝi, palpi 
tow, stupo 
toward, al 
towel, viŝilo 
tower, turo 
town, urbo 
toy, iudilo 

trace, postsigno 

track, vojo 

trade, negoci, komerci, 

tradition, tradicio 
tragedy, tragedio 
train, dresi, vagonaro, 

trait, trajto 
traitorous, perfida 
transcribe, transskribi 
translate, traduki 
transparent, travidebla 
travel, veturi, vojaĝi 
tray, pleto 
treadle, pedalo 
treasure, trezoro 
treat, kuraci, regali, 

treaty, kontrakto, in- 

tree, arbo 
triangle, triangulo 
tribe, gento 
trifle, bagatelo 
trill, trili 
trio, trio 
triumph, triumfo 
trivial, triviala 
trombone, trombono 
troop, bando, amaso 
tropic, tropiko 
trot, troti 
trough, trogo 
trousers, pantolono 
trout, truto 


English-Esperanto Vocabulary 

trump, atuto, trumpo 
trunk, kesto, kofro, 

trunko, rostro 
trust, konfidi, fidi 
try, peni, provi, atenci 
tub, kuvo 
tube, tubo 
tuber, tubero 
Tuesday, mardo 
tuft, tufo 
tulip, tulipo 
tumbler, glaso 
tumult, tumulto 
tune, agordi 
turf, torfo 
Turk, turko 

turkey, meleagro 
turn, turni, torni, vico 
turpentine, terebinto 
turquoise, turkiso 
turtle, testudo 
turtle-dove, turto 
twelve, dekdu 
twine, fadeno, Ŝnureto 
twinkle, brileti 
twist, tordi 
twitter, pepi, ĉirpi 
two, du 
type, -modelo, preslitero, 

typhus, tifo 
tyrant, tirano 

udder, mamo 
ugly, malbela 
ukase, ukazo 
ulcer, ulcero 
unbounded, senlima 
uncle, onklo 
under, sub 
undergo, suferi 
underscore, substreki 
understand, kompreni 
undertake, entrepreni 
unexpected, neatendita 
unhappy, malfeliĉa 
uniform, uniformo 
union, unuigo, unuiĝo 
unit, unuo 

universal, universala 
university, universitato 
unless, escepte ke 
until, ĝis 
unto, al 

unworthy, malinda 
upon, sur 
urge, urĝi 
urine, urino 
us, nin 
use, uzi 
usual, kutima 
usurp, uzurpi 
utilize, utiligi 
Utopia, utopio 
utterly, tute 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


vacant, vakanta 
vacation, libertempo 
vaccinate, inokuli 
vain, vana, vanta 
vainly, vane 
valise, valizo 
valley, valo 
value, valoro 
valve, klapo 
vanilla, vanilo 
vanquish, venki 
vapor, vaporo 
variola, variolo 
various, diversa 
varnish, laki 
vase, vazo 
vaseline, vazelino 
vassal, vasalo 
vast, vasta 
vegetable, legomo 
vehicle, veturilo 
vein, vejno 
vellum, veleno 
velvet, yeluro 
vengeance, venĝo 
venom, veneno 
ventilate, ventoli 
venture, riski 
verb, verbo 
verdict, verdikto 
verse, verso 
vertical, vertikala 

very, tre 

vessel, Ŝipo, boato, ujo 
vest, veŝto 
veteran, veterano 
vex, ĉagreni 
vice, malvirto 
victory, venko 
view, vidi, vidaĵo 
vigilant, vigla 
village, vilaĝo 
villain, kanajlo 
vinegar, vinagro 
violence, perforto 
violet, violo 
violin, violono 
virginal, virga 
virus, veneno 
vision, vido, aperaĵo 
visit, viziti 
vizage, vizaĝo 
vizier, veziro 
voice, voĉo 
volkano, vulkano 
volume, tomo, volumo 
voluptuous, voluptema 
vomit, vomi 
vote, baloti, voĉdoni 
vouch, garantii, atesti 
vow, promesi Jure 
vowel, vokalo 
vulgar, vulgara 
vulture, vulturo 


English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


wad, vati 

wager, veti 

wages, salajro 

wagon, Ŝarĝveturilo 

waist, talio 

wait, atendi, servi 

waiter, kelnero 

wake, veki 

walk, marŝi, promeni 

wall, muro 

walnut, juglando 

waltz, valso 

wander, vagi 

want, bezoni, manki 

ward, kvartalo 

warm, varma 

warn, averti 

wash, lavi 

watch, gardi, poŝhor- 

water, akvo 
wave, ondo 
wax, vakso 
way, vojo, maniero 
we, ni 

wealth, riĉeco 
wear, porti, eluzi 
weary, laca, enua 
weather, vetero 
wedge, kojno 
Wednesday, merkredo 

weed, sarki 
week, semajno 
weep, plori 
weigh, pezi, pesi 
welcome, bonveno 
well, nu, sana, bone, 

west, okcidento 
wet, malseka 
whale, baleno 
what, kia, kio 
wheat, tritiko 
wheel, rado 
when, kiam 
where, kie 
whether, Ĉu 
which, kio, kiu 
while, dum 
whim, kaprico 
whip, vipo 
whiskers, vangharoj 
whisper, paroleti 
whistle, fajfi. 
whist, visto 
white, blanka 
who, kiu 
whole, tuto, tuta 
wholesale, pogrande 
whom, kiun 
whose, kies 
why, kial 

English- Esperanto Vocabulary 


widower, vidvo 
wife, edzino 
wild, sovaĝa 
willful, obstina 
will, testamenti, voli 
willingly, volonte 
win, venki, gajni 
wind, vento 
wind, tordi, vindi, streĉi 
window, fenestro 
wine, vino 
wing, flugilo, flankaĵo 
wink, palpebrumi 
winter, vintro 
wipe, viŝi 

wisdom, saĝo, saĝeco 
wish, deziri, voli 
wit, sprito 
without, sen 
witness, vidi, atesti 

wizard, sorĉisto 
wolf, lupo 
woman, virino 
womb, utero 
wondef, miri 
woo, amindumi 
wool, lano 
word, vorto 
work, labori, verko 
world, monda 
worm, vermo 
worship, adori 
worth, valoro, indo 
wound, vundi 
wrap, kovri, volvi 
wreath, girlando 
wreck, ŝippereo 
wretched, mizera 
wrinkle, sulko 
write, skribi, verki 

' ■''•-• _ 

yacht, yahto 
yard, korto, jardo 
yawn, oscedi 
year, jaro 
yearly, ĉiujara 
yell, kriegi 
yellow, flava 
yes, jes 

yesterday, hieraŭ 
yet, tamen, ankoraŭ 

yew, taksuso 

yield, cedi, kapitulaci, 

yoke, jugo 
you, vi 

young, juna, ido 
your, yours, via 
youth, junulo, juneco 
youthful, juna 
Yule, kristnasko 

i30-3i6 aa English- Esperanto Vocabulary 

zeal, fervoro zigzag, zigzago 

zebra, zebro . zinc, zinko 

zenith, zenito zoology, zoologio 

zero, nulo zouave, zuavo 

l Total number of page», 316. 


is a monthly journal of Esperanto literature 
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and published by Comrade Arthur Baker, the 
compiler of this book. Containing articles 
on live topics by writers of various nations, 
it is of much help to those who wish to ac- 
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